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The relative DNA levels of different developmental stages ofBabesia bigemina andB. canis were measured by cytophotometry using the fluorochrome Hoechst 33258 as a staining dye. The DNA measurements provided direct proof of sexual reproduction, i.e., fusion of gametes resulting in the formation of zygotes followed by a meiotic division. BothBabesia species(More)
This study investigated the effect of different organizations of landmark-location pairings as fine-space information on wayfinding behavior and spatial knowledge on a total of 90 participants: 30 second graders, 30 sixth graders, and 30 adults. All participants had to find their way to a goal in a virtual environment with either randomized or categorical(More)
BACKGROUND In the past, different research groups could show that treatment of immune cells with inhibitors of post-proline splitting dipeptidyl aminopeptidases leads to functional changes in the immune system consistent with immunosuppression. This is due to the inhibition of proliferation of lymphocytes and the production of inflammatory cytokines of the(More)
The ectopeptidases Dipeptidylpeptidase IV and Alanyl-Aminopeptidase N, strongly expressed by both, activated and regulatory T cells were shown to co-operate in T cell regulation. Based on the findings that DPIV and APN inhibitors induce the TGF-beta1 and IL-10 production and a suppression of T helper cell proliferation in parallel, and that particularly APN(More)
Primary dispersed and organotypic cultures were prepared from selected brain areas and spinal cords of rat (Sprague-Dawley) and mouse (SJL/OLA(F) Ness-Ziona) fetuses and neonates. Following fiber regeneration, synapse formation and myelination, cultures were infected with one of the following viruses: Rabies CVS-21 strain, Sindbis Alphavirus, West-Nile(More)
Four derivatives of betulin containing a D-glucopyranosyl moiety at C3 position were synthesized and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy as well as mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of 28-O-acetylbetulin-3-yl-beta-D-(2',3',4',6'-tetra-O-acetyl)glucopyranoside was determined. The compounds were tested against fifteen tumor cell lines of(More)
The question addressed in the present study is whether children and adults are able to combine and decompose separate kinematic (visual-feedback-shift) and dynamic (velocity-dependent force) transformations in goal-directed arm movements. A total of 64 participants (32 adults and 32 children) performed horizontal forearm movements using a single-joint arm(More)