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Visibility and comprehension of standard text, standard symbolic, and improved symbolic highway signs were compared among young, middle-aged, and elderly observers. The average distance at which standard symbolic signs could be identified was about two times that of text signs for all three age groups. The visibility distances of the improved symbolic(More)
This study investigated the effect of different organizations of landmark-location pairings as fine-space information on wayfinding behavior and spatial knowledge on a total of 90 participants: 30 second graders, 30 sixth graders, and 30 adults. All participants had to find their way to a goal in a virtual environment with either randomized or categorical(More)
Approximately 30 million people currently suffer from late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) worldwide. Twin studies demonstrated that 60 to 80% of LOAD is genetically determined, 20% of which remaining unassigned. This case-control study included 118 cognitively healthy controls, 52 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; the pre-stage of LOAD) and 71(More)
The question addressed in the present study is whether children and adults are able to combine and decompose separate kinematic (visual-feedback-shift) and dynamic (velocity-dependent force) transformations in goal-directed arm movements. A total of 64 participants (32 adults and 32 children) performed horizontal forearm movements using a single-joint arm(More)
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