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Spatial variation in environmental conditions can lead to local adaptation of plant populations, particularly if gene flow among populations is low. Many studies have investigated adaptation to contrasting environmental conditions, but little is known about the spatial scale of adaptive evolution. We studied population differentiation and local adaptation(More)
The invasion success of introduced plants is frequently explained as a result of competitive interactions with native flora. Although previous theory and experiments have shown that plants are largely equivalent in their competitive effects on each other, competitive nonequivalence is hypothesized to occur in interactions between native and invasive(More)
Many exotic plant invaders pose a serious threat to native communities, but little is known about the dynamics of their impacts over time. In this study, we explored the impact of an invasive plant Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant hogweed) at 24 grassland sites invaded for different periods of time (from 11 to 48 years). Native species' richness and(More)
The cluster analysis represents a group of methods whose aim is to classify the investigated objects into clusters. There have been suggested many new algorithms recently. This article deals with the use of an advanced method of neural network represented by Kohonen self-organizing maps for cluster analysis and describes its basis. The software Matlab 7.1(More)
The paper deals with adaptive control of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A nonlinear model of the process is approximated by a continuous-time external linear model. The parameters of the CT external linear model of the process are estimated using a corresponding delta model. The control system with two feedback controllers is considered. The(More)
The paper deals with the cluster analysis and genetic algorithms and describes their basis. The application of genetic algorithms is focused on a cluster analysis as an optimization task. The case studies present the way of solution of two and three dimensional cluster analysis in MATLAB program with use of the Genetic Algorithm and Direct Search Toolbox.(More)
Time-delays (dead times) occur in many processes in industry. A Toolbox in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment was designed for identification and self-tuning control of such processes. The control algorithms are based on modifications of the Smith Predictor (SP). The designed algorithms that are included in the toolbox are suitable not only for simulation(More)
The paper deals with design of controllers for time delay systems having integrative or unstable properties. The proposed method is based on two methods of time delay approximations. The control system with two feedback controllers is considered. For design of controllers, the polynomial approach is used. Resulting continuous-time controllers obtained via(More)