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16S ribosomal RNA currently represents the most important target of study in bacterial ecology. Its use for the description of bacterial diversity is, however, limited by the presence of variable copy numbers in bacterial genomes and sequence variation within closely related taxa or within a genome. Here we use the information from sequenced bacterial(More)
Piptoporus betulinus is a common wood-rotting fungus parasitic for birch (Betula species). It is able to cause fast mass loss of birch wood or other lignocellulose substrates. When grown on wheat straw, P. betulinus caused 65% loss of dry mass within 98 days, and it produced endo-1,4-beta-glucanase (EG), endo-1,4-beta-xylanase, endo-1,4-beta-mannanase,(More)
Fungi are important in soils as both decomposers and plant symbionts, and an understanding of the composition of their complex communities is thus indispensable to answer a variety of ecological questions. 454 Pyrosequencing is currently the method of choice for the in-depth analysis of fungal communities. However, the interpretation of its results is(More)
1. In Earth-system models, climate is a predominant control on the decomposition rates of organic matter 2–5. This assumption is based on the mean response of decomposition to climate, yet there is a growing appreciation in other areas of global change science that projections based on mean responses can be irrelevant and misleading 6,7. We test whether(More)
Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) analyses from very diverse environments are frequently used with the aim of characterizing the metabolic versatility of whole environmental bacterial communities. While the limitations of the methodology for the characterization of whole communities are well known, we propose that CLPP combined with(More)
Organic matter decomposition in the globally widespread coniferous forests has an important role in the carbon cycle, and cellulose decomposition is especially important in this respect because cellulose is the most abundant polysaccharide in plant litter. Cellulose decomposition was 10 times faster in the fungi-dominated litter of Picea abies forest than(More)
There is growing evidence of the importance of extramatrical mycelium (EMM) of mycorrhizal fungi in carbon (C) cycling in ecosystems. However, our understanding has until recently been mainly based on laboratory experiments, and knowledge of such basic parameters as variations in mycelial production, standing biomass and turnover as well as the regulatory(More)
The white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus was able to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, and benzo[ghi]perylene in nonsterile soil both in the presence and in the absence of cadmium and mercury. During 15 weeks of incubation,(More)
Laccases are oxidases that contain several copper atoms, and catalyse single-electron oxidations of phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The enzymes are particularly widespread in ligninolytic basidiomycetes, but also occur in certain prokaryotes, insects and plants. Depending on the species, laccases are involved in various(More)
The unmanaged Norway spruce montane forests in the Bohemian Forest National Park (Czech Republic) suffered from repeated large-scale bark beetle outbreaks in last decade. In this study, the diversity of culturable foliar endophyte microfungi in needles originating from eleven recently wind-fallen trees in this area was surveyed. Our aims were to describe(More)