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Chemostat cultivation enables investigations into the effects of individual environmental parameters on sugar transport in yeasts. Various means are available to manipulate the specific rate of sugar uptake (qs) in sugar-limited chemostat cultures. A straightforward way to manipulate qs is variation of the dilution rate, which, in substrate-limited(More)
BACKGROUND Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem in developing countries and antibiotic use is widespread. Our previous surveys in Java, Indonesia, revealed that most antibiotic use was probably unnecessary or ineffective. The aim of this study was to explore a potential connection between resistance and substandard antibiotics sold in the area.(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of microorganisms causing community-acquired pneumonia in patients who required admission to hospital was investigated and the percentage of cases whose aetiology remained unknown due to the study design and logistical problems estimated. METHODS Between January 1991 and April 1993 all patients with community-acquired pneumonia(More)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the diversity of the genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes and their association with class 1 integrons in three pan-European clones of Acinetobacter baumannii. The study collection included 106 multidrug-resistant strains previously allocated to clone I (n = 56), clone II (n = 36) and clone III(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the antibiotic use of individuals visiting public healthcare facilities in Indonesia and to identify determinants of use against a background of high resistance rates. METHODS Patients on admission to hospital (group A), visiting a primary health center (group B), and healthy relatives (group C) were included in the study. A(More)
A cross-sectional surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and exposure to risk factors was undertaken in two Indonesian teaching hospitals (Hospitals A and B). Patients from internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, paediatrics, a class department and intensive care were included. Patient demographics, antibiotic use, culture(More)
The prevalence of the currently known Acinetobacter species and related trends of antimicrobial resistance in a Dutch university hospital were studied. Between 1999 and 2006, Acinetobacter isolates from clinical samples were collected prospectively. Isolates were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting. For species identification,(More)
Ascorbate free radical is considered to be a substrate for a plasma membrane redox system of eukaryotic cells, and might be involved in stimulation of cell proliferation. It can be generated by transition metal-dependent oxidation of ascorbate or by an equilibrium reaction of ascorbate with dehydroascorbic acid. Using ESR spectroscopic measurements at pH(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with common variable immunodeficiency often suffer from recurrent bacterial infections. Administration of immunoglobulins is a well-established treatment to reduce the frequency and severity of these infections. However, in patients with anti-IgA antibodies or side effects to previous immunoglobulin substitution therapy, administration(More)