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BACKGROUND Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) have at least 2 different functions. They inhibit the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases, and they act as growth factors. METHODS Pretreatment ethylenediamine tetracetic acid plasma TIMP-1 was assayed from 251 patients who were enrolled in a Phase III, second-line, hormone therapy(More)
BACKGROUND Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) has paradoxical multifunctional roles in tumorigenesis: inhibition of the catalytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases and apoptosis as well as promotion of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Elevated TIMP-1 levels have been associated with a poorer prognosis in multiple cancers. METHODS(More)
PURPOSE To determine the effect of elevated serum TIMP-1 on the response of patients with metastatic breast cancer to an aromatase inhibitor versus tamoxifen. PATIENTS AND METHODS Five hundred twenty-two patients estrogen receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive first-line hormone therapy with letrozole or tamoxifen.(More)
BACKGROUND Prolonged exposure of breast carcinoma cells in vitro to tamoxifen results in tamoxifen resistance. Tamoxifen-resistant cells express increased HER-2/neu mRNA and protein. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast carcinoma who have negative serum HER-2/neu status at the initiation of(More)
BACKGROUND Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, HER-1, and erbB1) is overexpressed in primary breast cancer and had been identified as a poor prognostic factor. METHODS Pretreatment serum EGFR levels were quantified by using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay in a Phase III first-line trial of letrozole and tamoxifen and were correlated with(More)
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) was evaluated in the pre-treatment serum of 55 newly diagnosed patients with symptomatic myeloma. TIMP-1 was elevated in 47% of patients and correlated with lytic bone disease and increased bone resorption. Importantly, TIMP-1 correlated with ISS stage (p=0.005) and was an independent prognostic covariate for(More)
INTRODUCTION Nearly 1 in 40 of the population seeks medical advice related to a shoulder problem every year. The majority pertain to rotator cuff pathology. Prior to intervention in such patients it is imperative to define whether the tendons are intact or torn. Ultrasonography has become an essential adjunct to clinical assessment in diagnosing rotator(More)
A generic framework is described that supports the design and simulation of complex systems. The simulation framework incorporates a CAD Framework that has been extended with high-level services for visualizing and exploring system performance. The simulation framework is used in a number of industrial environments for the development and optimization of(More)