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Remyelination is a regenerative process in the central nervous system (CNS) that produces new myelin sheaths from adult stem cells. The decline in remyelination that occurs with advancing age poses a significant barrier to therapy in the CNS, particularly for long-term demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that remyelination(More)
The lack of therapies for progressive multiple sclerosis highlights the need to understand the regenerative process of remyelination that can follow CNS demyelination. This involves an innate immune response consisting of microglia and macrophages, which can be polarized to distinct functional phenotypes: pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory or(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the inheritance of susceptibility to oxygen-induced retinopathy in the rat with the use of formal backcross analysis. METHODS Neonatal offspring of inbred albino Fischer 344 (F344) and pigmented Dark Agouti (DA) crosses and F1xF344 and F1xDA backcrosses were exposed to alternating 24-hour cycles of hyperoxia (80% oxygen in air) and(More)
PURPOSE To examine the susceptibilities of different rat strains to oxygen-induced retinopathy, a model of human retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS Litters of newborn rats of five inbred strains (Fischer 344 [F344], Dark Agouti [DA], Sprague-Dawley [SD], Wistar-Furth [WF], Lewis [LEW]) and one outbred strain (Hooded Wistar [HW]) were maintained in room(More)
The mechanisms regulating differentiation of oligodendrocyte (OLG) progenitor cells (OPCs) into mature OLGs are key to understanding myelination and remyelination. Signaling via the retinoid X receptor γ (RXR-γ) has been shown to be a positive regulator of OPC differentiation. However, the nuclear receptor (NR) binding partner of RXR-γ has not been(More)
PURPOSE The proliferation of new blood vessels in the retina is a leading cause of vision impairment. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) is involved in cell signaling for ischemia-induced angiogenesis, but its role in retinal neovascularization is unclear. We have analyzed the dependence of retinal neovascularization on the(More)
It has been established that beyond middle age, mice are slower to recover inner retinal function following an acute intraocular pressure (IOP) injury. While 3 month old animals exhibit near-complete recovery 1 week following injury, 12 and 18 month old animals demonstrate prolonged inner retinal dysfunction. In this study we aim to determine whether(More)
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) become increasingly vulnerable to injury with advancing age. We recently showed that this vulnerability can be strongly modified in mice by exercise. However, the characteristics and underlying mechanisms of retinal protection with exercise remain unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate cellular changes(More)
PURPOSE To present the rates of referral of participants in the National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) for further eye care. MATERIALS & METHODS A national sample of 3098 non-Indigenous Australians aged 50-98 and 1738 Indigenous Australians aged 40-92 years living in 30 randomly selected sites was recruited using a door-to-door approach. Participants completed(More)
OBJECTIVE To present the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Indigenous and non-Indigenous participants in the National Eye Health Survey. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS 3098 non-Indigenous Australians aged 50-98 years and 1738 Indigenous Australians aged 40-92 years were examined in 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness. A history of(More)