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Heart rate fluctuations occur in the low-frequency range (<0.1 Hz) probed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of resting-state functional connectivity and most fMRI block paradigms and may be related to low-frequency blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations. To investigate this hypothesis, temporal correlations(More)
The ability to detect brain anatomy and pathophysiology with MRI is limited by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), which depends on the contrast mechanism used and the spatial resolution. In this work, we show that in MRI of the human brain, large improvements in contrast to noise in high-resolution images are possible by exploiting the MRI signal phase at(More)
Recent blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI) studies of the human brain have shown that in the absence of external stimuli, activity persists in the form of distinct patterns of temporally correlated signal fluctuations. In this work, we investigated the spontaneous BOLD signal fluctuations during states of reduced consciousness such(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a potential paradigm shift in psychiatric neuroimaging. The technique provides individual, rather than group-averaged, functional neuroimaging data, but subtle methodological confounds represent unique challenges for psychiatric research. As an exemplar of the unique potential and problems of fMRI, we present(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a tool for mapping brain function that utilizes neuronal activity-induced changes in blood oxygenation. An efficient three-dimensional fMRI method is presented for imaging brain activity on conventional, widely available, 1.5-T scanners, without additional hardware. This approach uses large magnetic(More)
Signal fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can result from a number of sources that may have a neuronal, physiologic or instrumental origin. To determine the relative contribution of these sources, we recorded physiological (respiration and cardiac) signals simultaneously with fMRI in human volunteers at rest with their eyes closed.(More)
Recent advances in high-field MRI have dramatically improved the visualization of human brain anatomy in vivo. Most notably, in cortical gray matter, strong contrast variations have been observed that appear to reflect the local laminar architecture. This contrast has been attributed to subtle variations in the magnetic properties of brain tissue, possibly(More)
Recent advances in high-field (>or=7 T) MRI have made it possible to study the fine structure of the human brain at the level of fiber bundles and cortical layers. In particular, techniques aimed at detecting MRI resonance frequency shifts originating from local variation in magnetic susceptibility and other sources have greatly improved the visualization(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the sensitivity dependence of BOLD functional imaging on MRI acquisition parameters in motor stimulation experiments using a finger tapping paradigm. MATERIALS AND METHODS Gradient-echo echo-planar fMRI experiments were performed at 1.5 T and 3.0 T with varying acquisition echo time and bandwidth, and with a 4 mm isotropic voxel(More)
Recent in vivo MRI studies at 7.0 T have demonstrated extensive heterogeneity of T(2)* relaxation in white matter of the human brain. In order to study the origin of this heterogeneity, we performed T(2)* measurements at 1.5, 3.0, and 7.0 T in normal volunteers. Formalin-fixed brain tissue specimens were also studied using T(2)*-weighted MRI, histologic(More)