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The complete nucleotide sequence of the large (L) genome segment of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been determined. The RNA is 8897 nucleotides long and contains complementary 3' and 5' ends, comprising 62 nucleotides at the 5' end and 66 nucleotides at the 3' end. The RNA is of negative polarity, with one large open reading frame (ORF) located on the(More)
The nucleotide sequences of the nucleoprotein (N) genes of seven tospovirus isolates representing three serogroups were determined and used to establish phylogenetic parameters to delineate species within the Tospovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae. A high sequence divergence (55.9% identity at the nucleotide level) was observed between isolates of serogroup I(More)
RNA silencing or interference (RNAi) is a gene regulation mechanism in eukaryotes that controls cell differentiation and developmental processes via expression of microRNAs. RNAi also serves as an innate antiviral defence response in plants, nematodes, and insects. This antiviral response is triggered by virus-specific double-stranded RNA molecules (dsRNAs)(More)
Various surgical procedures may cause temporary interruption of spinal cord blood supply and may result in irreversible ischemic injury and neurological deficits. The cascade of events that leads to neuronal death following ischemia may be amenable to pharmacological manipulations that aim to increase the tolerable duration of ischemia. Many agents have(More)
RNA silencing comprises a set of sequence-specific RNA degradation pathways that occur in a wide range of eukaryotes, including animals, fungi and plants. A hallmark of RNA silencing is the presence of small interfering RNA molecules (siRNAs). The siRNAs are generated by cleavage of larger double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and provide the sequence specificity(More)
The RNA silencing pathway is an intracellular innate response to virus infections and retro-transposons. Many plant viruses counter this host restriction by RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) activity of a double-stranded RNA-binding protein, e.g., tomato bushy stunt virus P19. Here, we demonstrate P19 and HIV-1 Tat function across the plant and animal kingdoms(More)
Monitoring motor-evoked responses to transcranial stimulation (tc-MERs) provides information about the functional status of the spinal cord during operations that pose the risk of spinal cord ischemia. Responses can be recorded from the epidural space (epidural tc-MERs) or from muscle (myogenic tc-MERs). In this study the relative sensitivity of epidural(More)
BACKGROUND The recurrent failure of apparently promising neuroprotective drugs to improve outcome in trials of patients with acute ischaemic stroke may partially be explained by over-optimistic conclusions about efficacy as a result of methodological shortcomings in preclinical studies. We assessed the methodological quality of animal studies of five(More)
OBJECTIVE In the present study, we investigated the effect of ischemic pretreatment on heat shock protein 72 concentration and neurologic and histopathologic outcome after transient spinal cord ischemia. METHODS In 28 New Zealand White rabbits, an aortic occlusion device was placed infrarenally. The animals were randomly assigned to 2 groups: ischemic(More)
The complete sequence of the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) M RNA segment has been determined. The RNA is 4821 nucleotides long and has an ambisense coding strategy similar to that of the S RNA segment. The M RNA segment contains two open reading frames (ORFs), one in the viral sense which encodes a protein with a predicted size of 33.6K, and one in the(More)