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A gene, hmp, which encodes a ubiquitous protein homologous to hemoglobin was isolated among genes from Bacillus subtilis that are induced under anaerobic conditions. The hmp protein belongs to the family of two-domain flavohemoproteins, homologs of which have been isolated from various organisms such as Escherichia coli, Alcaligenes eutrophus, and(More)
The divergently transcribed nasA gene and nasB operon are required for nitrate and nitrite assimilation in Bacillus subtilis. The beta-galactosidase activity of transcriptional lacZ fusions from the nasA and nasB promoters was high when cells were grown in minimal glucose medium containing poor nitrogen sources such as nitrate, proline, or glutamate. The(More)
Bacillus subtilis is known to produce an abundance of small polypeptides. Several of these have antimicrobial activity and others are pheromones or extracellular factors that affect internal signal transduction systems. The completion of the B. subtilis genomic nucleotide sequence has revealed 345 small polypeptide open-reading frames (of 85 codons or(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the 20,535 base pairs of the 5' end of the srfA operon, containing the region required for competence development, was determined. This included the srfA promoter region, the first open reading frame, srfAA, encoding surfactin synthetase I and part of the second open reading frame, srfAB, encoding surfactin synthetase II. Three(More)
A mutation in any one of eight spoO genes of Bacillus subtilis blocks the process of spore formation at its earliest stage. To investigate how the products of the spoO genes may be involved in developmental gene expression, we fused the lacZ gene of E. coli to spoVG, a sporulation gene whose induction at the onset of sporulation is under spoO control. In(More)
Bacillus subtilis can grow anaerobically in the presence of nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor. The two component regulatory proteins, ResD and ResE, and an anaerobic gene regulator, FNR, were previously shown to be indispensable for nitrate respiration in B. subtilis. Unlike Escherichia coli fnr, B. subtilis fnr transcription was shown to be highly(More)
Bacillus subtilis JH642 and a wild strain of B. subtilis called 22a both produce an antilisterial peptide that can be purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Amino acid analysis confirmed that the substance was the cyclic bacteriocin subtilosin. A mutant defective in production of the substance was isolated from a plasmid gene(More)
ATP-dependent proteases degrade denatured or misfolded proteins and are recruited for the controlled removal of proteins that block activation of regulatory pathways. Among the ATP-dependent proteases, those of the Clp family are particularly important for the growth and development of Bacillus subtilis. Proteolytic subunit ClpP, together with regulatory(More)
The spx gene encodes an RNA polymerase-binding protein that exerts negative and positive transcriptional control in response to oxidative stress in Bacillus subtilis. It resides in the yjbC-spx operon and is transcribed from at least five promoters located in the yjbC regulatory region or in the yjbC-spx intergenic region. Induction of spx transcription in(More)