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Peptidoglycan structural dynamics during endospore germination of Bacillus subtilis 168 have been examined by muropeptide analysis. The first germination-associated peptidoglycan structural changes are detected within 3 min after the addition of the specific germinant L-alanine. We detected in the spore-associated material new muropeptides which, although(More)
The structure of the endospore cell wall peptidoglycan of Bacillus subtilis has been examined. Spore peptidoglycan was produced by the development of a method based on chemical permeabilization of the spore coats and enzymatic hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan. The resulting muropeptides which were >97% pure were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance(More)
1. Calcium currents and intramembrane charge movements were measured in cut twitch muscle fibres of the frog and the time course of activation of the current was studied using various conditioning pulse protocols. 2. When a conditioning activation was produced by a depolarizing pulse which ended before inactivation occurred, a subsequent depolarization led(More)
1. Ca2+ inward currents were measured by voltage clamping cut skeletal muscle fibres of the frog (Rana esculenta) in a double-Vaseline-gap system. 2. In order to study the basis of the previously described fast gating mode induced in the Ca2+ inward current by a conditioning depolarization we quantitatively analysed the response to differing features of the(More)
1. L-type calcium currents were activated by depolarization of cut muscle fibres of the frog. The current was blocked by the dihydropyridine compound nifedipine (5-10 microM) and reactivated by flash photolysis of the drug. 2. In the presence of nifedipine, increasing the time interval between the onset of depolarization and the flash resulted in(More)
This study explores the potential of a novel electrospray-based method, termed gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis (GEMMA), allowing the molecular mass determination of peptides, proteins and noncovalent biocomplexes up to 2 MDa (dimer of immunglobulin M). The macromolecular ions were formed by nano electrospray ionization (ESI) in the(More)
The content of zearalenone and its metabolites in urine and tissue samples from pigs fed zearalenone-contaminated oats was established by analytical methods combining solid-phase extraction cleanup of the samples with highly selective liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS detection. Investigation of the urine samples revealed that approximately(More)
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that are growing on agricultural commodities. Their frequent presence in food and their severe toxic, carcinogenic and estrogenic properties have been recognised as potential threat to human health. A reliable risk assessment of mycotoxin contamination for humans and animals relies(More)
A group of five heifers were fed for 84 days with 2 kg of zearalenone-contaminated oats (1370 microg/kg) resulting in an average daily intake of 2740 microg of zearalenone per animal. In a parallel experiment five heifers were implanted with two 25 mg zeranol pellets, one at the beginning of the study and one after 42 days, and fed with 2 kg of "blank"(More)
Patients with complications of peptic ulcers, high grade reflux oesophagitis, or Zollinger Ellison syndrome need a sufficient permanent acid suppression. In appropriate indications they receive proton pump inhibitors (PPI) intravenously or via perfusion over a longer period, if an oral application is not possible. PPIs are prodrugs, which should be(More)