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Gene expression of DNA viruses requires nuclear import of the viral genome. Human Adenoviruses (Ads), like most DNA viruses, encode factors within early transcription units promoting their own gene expression and counteracting cellular antiviral defense mechanisms. The cellular transcriptional repressor Daxx prevents viral gene expression through the(More)
The death-associated protein Daxx found in PML (promyelocytic leukemia protein) nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) is involved in transcriptional regulation and cellular intrinsic antiviral resistence against incoming viruses. We found that knockdown of Daxx in a nontransformed human hepatocyte cell line using RNA interference (RNAi) techniques results in(More)
Since posttranslational modification (PTM) by the small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) was discovered over a decade ago, a huge number of cellular proteins have been found to be reversibly modified, resulting in alteration of differential cellular pathways. Although the molecular consequences of SUMO attachment are difficult to predict, the underlying(More)
BACKGROUND The 12-month (M) PROTECT study showed that de novo liver transplant recipients (LTxR) who switched from a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based immunosuppression to a CNI-free everolimus (EVR)-based regimen showed numerically better renal function. Here, we present the five-yr follow-up data. METHODS PROTECT was a randomized controlled study in(More)
BACKGROUND The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpu protein degrades CD4 and counteracts a restriction factor termed tetherin (CD317; Bst-2) to enhance virion release. It has been suggested that both functions can be genetically separated by mutation of a serine residue at position 52. However, recent data suggest that the S52 phosphorylation(More)
The E4orf6 protein of serotypes representing all human adenovirus species forms Cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes that facilitate virus infection by inducing degradation of cellular proteins that impede efficient viral replication. This complex also includes the viral E1B55K product believed to bind and introduce substrates for ubiquitination.(More)
Early region 1B 55K (E1B-55K) from adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) is a multifunctional regulator of lytic infection and contributes in vitro to complete cell transformation of primary rodent cells in combination with Ad5 E1A. Inhibition of p53 activated transcription plays a key role in processes by which E1B-55K executes its oncogenic potential. Nevertheless,(More)
Eukaryotic cells orchestrate constant synthesis and degradation of intracellular components, including soluble proteins and organelles. The two major intracellular degradation pathways are the ubiquitin/proteasome system and autophagy. Whereas ubiquitin/proteasome system is involved in rapid degradation of proteins, autophagy selectively removes protein(More)
Death domain-associated protein (Daxx) cooperates with X-linked α-thalassaemia retardation syndrome protein (ATRX), a putative member of the sucrose non-fermentable 2 family of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling proteins, acting as the core ATPase subunit in this complex, whereas Daxx is the targeting factor, leading to histone deacetylase recruitment,(More)
PML nuclear bodies (PML NBs), also called ND10, are matrix-bound nuclear structures that have been implicated in a variety of functions, including DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, protein degradation, and tumor suppression. These domains are also known for their potential to mediate an intracellular defense mechanism against many virus types. This is(More)