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Prediction of small molecule binding modes to macromolecules of known three-dimensional structure is a problem of paramount importance in rational drug design (the "docking" problem). We report the development and validation of the program GOLD (Genetic Optimisation for Ligand Docking). GOLD is an automated ligand docking program that uses a genetic(More)
Understanding the principles whereby macromolecular biological receptors can recognise small molecule substrates or inhibitors is the subject of a major effort. This is of paramount importance in rational drug design where the receptor structure is known (the "docking" problem). Current theoretical approaches utilise models of the steric and electrostatic(More)
This article reviews recent research into the use of hierarchic agglomerative clustering methods for document retrieval. After an introduction to the calculation of interdocument similarities and to clustering methods that are appropriate for document clustering, the article discusses algorithms that can be used to allow the implementation of these methods(More)
This paper reviews the use of similarity searching in chemical databases. It begins by introducing the concept of similarity searching, differentiating it from the more common substructure searching, and then discusses the current generation of fragment-based measures that are used for searching chemical structure databases. The next sections focus upon two(More)
This paper reports a detailed comparison of a range of different types of 2D fingerprints when used for similarity-based virtual screening with multiple reference structures. Experiments with the MDL Drug Data Report database demonstrate the effectiveness of fingerprints that encode circular substructure descriptors generated using the Morgan algorithm.(More)
The maximum common subgraph (MCS) problem has become increasingly important in those aspects of chemoinformatics that involve the matching of 2D or 3D chemical structures. This paper provides a classification and a review of the many MCS algorithms, both exact and approximate, that have been described in the literature, and makes recommendations regarding(More)
Term cooccurrence data has been extensively used in document retrieval systems for the identification of indexing terms that are similar to those that have been specified in a user query: these similar terms can then be used to augment the original query statement. Despite the plausibility of this approach to query expansion , the retrieval effectiveness of(More)
This paper summarizes recent work at the University of Sheffield on virtual screening methods that use 2D fingerprint measures of structural similarity. A detailed comparison of a large number of similarity coefficients demonstrates that the well-known Tanimoto coefficient remains the method of choice for the computation of fingerprint-based similarity,(More)
Preface: Perceiving a pharmacophore is the most important first step towards understanding the interaction between a receptor and a ligand. In the early 1900s, Paul Ehrlich offered the first definition for a pharmacophore: "a molecular framework that carries (phoros) the essential features responsible for a drug's (pharmacon) biological activity" (Ehrlich(More)