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Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approximately 730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approximately 98% of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information.(More)
Pyruvate serves as a metabolic precursor for many plastid-localized biosynthetic pathways, such as those for fatty acids, terpenoids and branched-chain amino acids. In spite of the importance of pyruvate uptake into plastids (organelles within cells of plants and algae), the molecular mechanisms of this uptake have not yet been explored. This is mainly(More)
The high-chlorophyll fluorescence photosynthesis mutant hcf109 of Arabidopsis was characterized in detail to gain insights into the regulatory mechanism of RNA processing in higher plants. By using electron transport, chlorophyll fluorescence, and immunoblot studies, we assigned the mutational lesion to photosystems I and II and the plastid NAD(P)H(More)
BACKGROUND Sorghum is the first C4 plant and the second grass with a full genome sequence available. This makes it possible to perform a whole-genome-level exploration of C4 pathway evolution by comparing key photosynthetic enzyme genes in sorghum, maize (C4) and rice (C3), and to investigate a long-standing hypothesis that a reservoir of duplicated genes(More)
An ultimate goal of evolutionary biology is the prediction and experimental verification of adaptive trajectories on macroevolutionary timescales. This aim has rarely been achieved for complex biological systems, as models usually lack clear correlates of organismal fitness. Here, we simulate the fitness landscape connecting two carbon fixation systems: C3(More)
C(4) photosynthesis presents a sophisticated integration of two complementary cell types, mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. It relies on the differential expression of the genes encoding the component enzymes and transporters of this pathway. The entry enzyme of C(4) photosynthesis, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), is found exclusively in mesophyll(More)
A pair of GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors is required for normal chloroplast development in land plant species that encompass the range from bryophytes to angiosperms. In the C4 plant maize, compartmentalized function of the two GLK genes in bundle sheath and mesophyll cells regulates dimorphic chloroplast differentiation, whereas in the C3 plants(More)
C4 photosynthesis represents a most remarkable case of convergent evolution of a complex trait, which includes the reprogramming of the expression patterns of thousands of genes. Anatomical, physiological, and phylogenetic and analyses as well as computational modeling indicate that the establishment of a photorespiratory carbon pump (termed C2(More)
Chloroplasts are the endosymbiotic descendants of cyanobacterium-like prokaryotes. Present genomes of plant and green algae chloroplasts (plastomes) contain ~100 genes mainly encoding for their transcription-/translation-machinery, subunits of the thylakoid membrane complexes (photosystems II and I, cytochrome b 6 f, ATP synthase), and the large subunit of(More)
In leaves of most C(4) plants, the biochemistry of photosynthesis is partitioned between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells. In addition, their cell biology and development also differs from that in C(3) plants. We have a poor understanding of the mechanisms that generate the cell-specific accumulation of proteins used in the C(4) pathway, and there are few(More)