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We consider a positively expansive local homeomorphism T : X → X satisfying a weak specification property and study the Ruelle operator Lϕ of a real-valued continuous function ϕ satisfying a property we call Bowen's condition. We study convergence properties of the iterates L n ϕ and relate them to the theory of equilibrium states.
We present a biologically inspired actuator exhibiting a novel pumping action. The design of the 'artificial heartbeat' actuator is inspired by physical principles derived from the structure and function of the human heart. The actuator employs NiTi artificial muscles and is powered by electrical energy generated by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). We describe… (More)
BACKGROUND Over the past century, abdominal surgery has seen a rapid transition from open procedures to less invasive methods, such as robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS). This study aimed to investigate and discuss the needs of MIS in terms of instrumentation and to inform the design of a novel instrument. METHODS A survey was conducted among… (More)
0. Introduction. Let Kn denote the «-dimensional torus. Let 7 be an affine transformation of Kn onto Kn and S an affine transformation of Km onto Km for which there exists a continuous map h of Kn onto Km satisfying hT= Sh. R. L. Adler and R. Palais have proved that, in the special cases when m = n and 7 and S are ergodic automorphisms of Kn, all… (More)
Traditional assembly line manufacturing is speculative, costly and environmentally unsustainable. It is speculative because it commits substantial resources—energy, materials, shipping, handling, stocking and displaying—without a guaranteed sale. It is costly because each of these resources—material, process, people and place—involves expense not… (More)