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In 1997, a devastating outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Taiwan was caused by a serotype O virus (referred to here as OTai) with atypical virulence. It produced high morbidity and mortality in swine but did not affect cattle. We have defined the genetic basis of the species specificity of OTai by evaluating the properties of genetically engineered(More)
In 1997, an epizootic in Taiwan, Province of China, was caused by a type O foot-and-mouth disease virus which infected pigs but not cattle. The virus had an altered 3A protein, which harbored a 10-amino-acid deletion and a series of substitutions. Here we show that this deletion is present in the earliest type O virus examined from the region (from 1970),(More)
Foot-and-mouth disease virus appears to initiate infection by binding to cells at an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence found in the flexible beta G-beta H loop of the viral capsid protein VP1. The role of the RGD sequence in attachment of virus to cells was tested by using synthetic full-length viral RNAs mutated within or near the RGD sequence. Baby hamster(More)
West Nile virus (WNV)-mediated neuronal death is a hallmark of WNV meningitis and encephalitis. However, the mechanisms of WNV-induced neuronal damage are not well understood. We investigated WNV neuropathogenesis by using human neuroblastoma cells and primary rat hippocampal neurons. We observed that WNV activates multiple unfolded protein response (UPR)(More)
Although efficacious and safe, current vaccines for FMD suffer from drawbacks. Among these are that the immune response to the vaccine interferes with the ability to detect vaccinated animals that have subsequently become infected and could carry and shed the virus, creating an obstacle to re-instating disease-free status to countries/regions that vaccinate(More)
Most isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) display a broad host range. Since the late 1990s, the genetic lineage of PanAsia topotype FMDV serotype O has caused epidemics in the Far East, Africa, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and numerous other countries throughout Europe and Asia. In contrast, there are several FMDV isolates that(More)
Isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) exist as complex mixtures of variants. Two different serotype O1 Campos preparations that we examined contained two variants with distinct plaque morphologies on BHK cells: a small, clear-plaque virus that replicates in BHK and CHO cells, and a large, turbid-plaque virus that only grows in BHK cells. cDNAs(More)
Adsorption and plaque formation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype A12 are inhibited by antibodies to the integrin alpha(v)beta3 (A. Berinstein et al., J. Virol. 69:2664-2666, 1995). A human cell line, K562, which does not normally express alpha(v)beta3 cannot replicate this serotype unless cells are transfected with cDNAs encoding this(More)
Over the last few years, an essential RNA structure known as the cis-acting replicative element (cre) has been identified within the protein-coding region of several picornaviruses. The cre, a stem-loop structure containing a conserved AAACA motif, functions as a template for addition of U residues to the protein primer 3B. By surveying the genomes of(More)
Picornavirus infection induces the proliferation and rearrangement of intracellular membranes in response to the synthesis of nonstructural proteins, including 3A. We have previously shown that changes in 3A are associated with the inability of a Taiwanese strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) (OTai) to grow in bovine cells and cause disease in(More)