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West Nile virus (WNV)-mediated neuronal death is a hallmark of WNV meningitis and encephalitis. However, the mechanisms of WNV-induced neuronal damage are not well understood. We investigated WNV neuropathogenesis by using human neuroblastoma cells and primary rat hippocampal neurons. We observed that WNV activates multiple unfolded protein response (UPR)(More)
Isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) exist as complex mixtures of variants. Two different serotype O1 Campos preparations that we examined contained two variants with distinct plaque morphologies on BHK cells: a small, clear-plaque virus that replicates in BHK and CHO cells, and a large, turbid-plaque virus that only grows in BHK cells. cDNAs(More)
Most isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) display a broad host range. Since the late 1990s, the genetic lineage of PanAsia topotype FMDV serotype O has caused epidemics in the Far East, Africa, the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and numerous other countries throughout Europe and Asia. In contrast, there are several FMDV isolates that(More)
West Nile virus (WNV), and related flaviviruses such as tick-borne encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever and dengue viruses, constitute a significant global human health problem. However, our understanding of the molecular interaction of such flaviviruses with mammalian host cells is limited. WNV encodes only 10 proteins, implying that it may(More)
The genome of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) differs from that of other picornaviruses in that it encodes a larger 3A protein (>50% longer than poliovirus 3A), as well as three copies of protein 3B (also known as VPg). Previous studies have shown that a deletion of amino acids 93 to 102 of the 153-codon 3A protein is associated with an inability of a(More)
The timing of vaccine availability is essential for an effective response to pandemic influenza. In 2009, vaccine became available after the disease peak, and this has motivated the development of next generation vaccine technologies for more rapid responses. The SAM(®) vaccine platform, now in pre-clinical development, is based on a synthetic,(More)
Candidate foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) DNA vaccines designed to produce viral capsids lacking infectious viral nucleic acid were evaluated. Plasmid DNAs containing a portion of the FMDV genome coding for the capsid precursor protein (P1-2A) and wild-type or mutant viral proteinase 3C (plasmids P12X3C or P12X3C-mut, respectively) were constructed. Cell-free(More)
Obtaining suitable seed viruses for influenza vaccines poses a challenge for public health authorities and manufacturers. We used reverse genetics to generate vaccine seed-compatible viruses from the 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza virus. Comparison of viruses recovered with variations in residues 186 and 194 (based on the H3 numbering system) of the(More)
Existing live-attenuated flavivirus vaccines (LAV) could be improved by reducing their potential to recombine with naturally circulating viruses in the field. Since the highly conserved cyclization sequences (CS) found in the termini of flavivirus genomes must be complementary to each other to support genome replication, we set out to identify paired mutant(More)