Peter W. Kalivas

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Progress has been made over the last 10 years in determining the neural mechanisms of sensitization induced by amphetamine-like psychostimulants, opioids and stressors. Changes in dopamine transmission in axon terminal fields such as the nucleus accumbens appear to underlie the expression of sensitization, but the actions of drugs and stressors in the(More)
The role of limbic-striato-pallidal circuitry in cocaine-induced reinstatement was evaluated. The transient inhibition of brain nuclei associated with motor systems [including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal prefrontal cortex (dPFC), core of the nucleus accumbens (NAcore), and ventral pallidum (VP)] prevented cocaine-induced reinstatement. However,(More)
Rationale and objectives: Repeated exposure to many drugs of abuse results in a progressive and enduring enhancement in the motor stimulant effect elicited by a subsequent drug challenge. This phenomenon, termed behavioral sensitization, is thought to underlie certain aspects of drug addiction. Behavioral sensitization is the consequence of drug-induced(More)
OBJECTIVE A primary behavioral pathology in drug addiction is the overpowering motivational strength and decreased ability to control the desire to obtain drugs. In this review the authors explore how advances in neurobiology are approaching an understanding of the cellular and circuitry underpinnings of addiction, and they describe the novel(More)
Repeated exposure to psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine produces behavioral sensitization, which is characterized by an augmented locomotor response to a subsequent psychostimulant challenge injection. Experimentation focused on the neural underpinnings of behavioral sensitization has progressed from a singular focus on dopamine transmission(More)
Addiction is associated with neuroplasticity in the corticostriatal brain circuitry that is important for guiding adaptive behaviour. The hierarchy of corticostriatal information processing that normally permits the prefrontal cortex to regulate reinforcement-seeking behaviours is impaired by chronic drug use. A failure of the prefrontal cortex to control(More)
Rats were pretreated with daily cocaine or saline injections for 1 week. The rats treated with daily cocaine were separated into two groups: a sensitized group of animals demonstrating > 20% increase in motor activity on the last injection compared with the first injection of daily cocaine, and a nonsensitized group showing < 20% elevation. At 2-3 weeks(More)
The efferent projections of the core and shell areas of the nucleus accumbens were studied with a combination of anterograde and retrograde tract-tracing methods, including Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, horseradish peroxidase and fluorescent tracers. Both the core and shell regions project to pallidal areas, i.e. ventral pallidum and entopeduncular(More)
The relative contributions of glutamate and dopamine within the nucleus accumbens to cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior were assessed. When extinguished cocaine self-administration behavior was reinstated by a cocaine-priming injection, extracellular levels of both dopamine and glutamate were elevated in the nucleus accumbens. However,(More)
Elevated dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens is thought to be a primary mediator of addiction to cocaine. However, repeated exposure to cocaine is associated with the recruitment of glutamate transmission. This poses the possibility that the behaviors characterizing cocaine addiction, such as craving-induced relapse, may not be preferentially(More)