Peter W. Hochachka

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We develop a unifying theory of hypoxia tolerance based on information from two cell level models (brain cortical cells and isolated hepatocytes) from the highly anoxia tolerant aquatic turtle and from other more hypoxia sensitive systems. We propose that the response of hypoxia tolerant systems to oxygen lack occurs in two phases (defense and rescue). The(More)
The power function of basal metabolic rate scaling is expressed as aM(b), where a corresponds to a scaling constant (intercept), M is body mass, and b is the scaling exponent. The 3/4 power law (the best-fit b value for mammals) was developed from Kleiber's original analysis and, since then, most workers have searched for a single cause to explain the(More)
Organisms vary widely in their tolerance to conditions of limiting oxygen supply to their cells and tissues. A unifying framework of hypoxia tolerance is now available that is based on information from cell-level models from highly anoxia-tolerant species, such as the aquatic turtle, and from other more hypoxia-sensitive systems. The response of(More)
Arterial blood gas tensions, pH, and hemoglobin concentrations were measured in four free-diving Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddelli. A microprocessor-controlled sampling system enabled us to obtain 24 single and 31 serial aortic blood samples. The arterial O2 tension (PaO2) at rest [78 +/- 13 (SD) Torr] increased with diving compression to a maximum(More)
Hummingbirds in flight display the highest rates of aerobic metabolism known among vertebrates. Their flight muscles possess sufficient maximal activities of hexokinase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase to allow the exclusive use of either glucose or long-chain fatty acids as metabolic fuels during flight. Respiratory quotients (RQ = VCO2/VO2) indicate(More)
Changes in regional blood flow during simulated normobaric diving were studied in the conscious Antarctic Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddelli) by injecting 25-microns radioactive microspheres into the left ventricle. Injections were performed before and 8--12 min after submersion of the head in iced seawater. Diving was associated with a fall in cardiac(More)
We have developed and successfully used the first microprocessor-controlled monitors for collection of data on depth, heart rate, and body temperature of one fetal and five adult male freely swimming Weddell seals. Adult seals almost invariably experienced a prompt bradycardia at the start of each dive, and the mean heart rate during diving was(More)
The in vitro deproteinized vastus lateralis muscle buffer capacity, carnosine, and histidine levels were examined in 20 men from 4 distinct populations (5 sprinters, 800-m runners; 5 rowers; 5 marathoners; 5 untrained). Needle biopsies were obtained at rest from the vastus lateralis muscle. The buffer capacity was determined in deproteinized homogenates by(More)
Arterial blood nitrogen tensions of free-diving Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddelli) were measured by attaching a microprocessor-controlled blood pump and drawing samples at depth to determine how these marine mammals dive to great depths and ascend rapidly without developing decompression sickness. Forty-seven samples of arterial blood were obtained from(More)