Peter W. H. Holland

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The homeobox genes are a large and diverse group of genes, many of which play important roles in the embryonic development of animals. Increasingly, homeobox genes are being compared between genomes in an attempt to understand the evolution of animal development. Despite their importance, the full diversity of human homeobox genes has not previously been(More)
Homeobox gene database (HomeoDB), a manually curated database of homeobox genes and their classification, has been well received since its release in 2008. Here, we report HomeoDB2, an expansion and improvement of the original database that provides greater functionality for the user. HomeoDB2 includes all homeobox loci from 10 animal genomes (human, mouse,(More)
UNLABELLED Many homeobox genes encode transcription factors with regulatory roles in animal and plant development. Homeobox genes are found in almost all eukaryotes, and have diversified into 11 gene classes and over 100 gene families in animal evolution, and 10 to 14 gene classes in plants. The largest group in animals is the ANTP class which includes the(More)
The ancestral chordate neural tube had a tripartite structure, comprising anterior, midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) and posterior regions. The most anterior region encompasses both forebrain and midbrain in vertebrates. It is not clear when or how the distinction between these two functionally and developmentally distinct regions arose in evolution.(More)
The homeobox gene superfamily includes many genes implicated in brain development in vertebrates; for example, the Otx, Emx, Dmbx, Gbx, En and Hox gene families. We describe the evolutionary history of the homeobox gene superfamily, as inferred from molecular phylogenetics and chromosomal mapping. Studies of amphioxus, a close relative of vertebrates, have(More)
Nanog is a recently discovered ANTP class homeobox gene. Mouse Nanog is expressed in the inner cell mass and in embryonic stem cells and has roles in self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency. Here we describe the location, genomic organization, and relative ages of all human NANOG pseudogenes, comprising ten processed pseudogenes and one tandem(More)
The homeobox genes comprise a large gene superfamily characterised by a conserved DNA motif encoding the homeodomain. Most homeodomain proteins function as transcription factors, and many have important roles in embryonic development and cell differentiation. Here we describe, annotate and name four novel homeobox genes in the human genome: ARGFX, DPRX,(More)
The Alx gene family is implicated in craniofacial development and comprises two to four homeobox genes in each vertebrate genome analyzed. Using phylogenetics and comparative genomics, we show that the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates had three Alx genes descendent from the two-round genome duplications (Alx1, Alx3, Alx4), compared with a single(More)
The chondrichthyan or cartilaginous fish (chimeras, sharks, skates and rays) occupy an important phylogenetic position as the sister group to all other jawed vertebrates and as an early lineage to diverge from the vertebrate lineage following two whole genome duplication events in vertebrate evolution. There have been few comparative genomic analyses(More)
We report the cDNA sequence and expression of a mouse homeobox gene, Dmbx1, from the PRD class and comparison to its human orthologue. The gene defines a new homeobox gene family, Dmbx, phylogenetically distinct from the Ptx, Alx, Prx Otx, Gsc, Otp and Pax gene families. The Dmbx1 gene is expressed in the developing mouse diencephalon, midbrain and(More)