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The ancestral chordate neural tube had a tripartite structure, comprising anterior, midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) and posterior regions. The most anterior region encompasses both forebrain and midbrain in vertebrates. It is not clear when or how the distinction between these two functionally and developmentally distinct regions arose in evolution.(More)
  • P W Holland
  • 1999
Gene duplication is of central interest to evolutionary developmental biology, having been implicated in evolutionary increases in complexity. These ideas stem principally from the Lewis model for the evolution of the BX-C and Ohno's proposal for genome duplications during chordate evolution. Here I revisit these models and show how recent data have(More)
Homeobox gene database (HomeoDB), a manually curated database of homeobox genes and their classification, has been well received since its release in 2008. Here, we report HomeoDB2, an expansion and improvement of the original database that provides greater functionality for the user. HomeoDB2 includes all homeobox loci from 10 animal genomes (human, mouse,(More)
BACKGROUND The homeobox genes are a large and diverse group of genes, many of which play important roles in the embryonic development of animals. Increasingly, homeobox genes are being compared between genomes in an attempt to understand the evolution of animal development. Despite their importance, the full diversity of human homeobox genes has not(More)
The emergence of multicellular organisms from single-celled ancestors -- which occurred several times, independently in different branches of the eukaryotic tree -- is one of the most profound evolutionary transitions in the history of life. These events not only radically changed the course of life on Earth but also created new challenges, including the(More)
UNLABELLED Many homeobox genes encode transcription factors with regulatory roles in animal and plant development. Homeobox genes are found in almost all eukaryotes, and have diversified into 11 gene classes and over 100 gene families in animal evolution, and 10 to 14 gene classes in plants. The largest group in animals is the ANTP class which includes the(More)
The homeobox gene superfamily includes many genes implicated in brain development in vertebrates; for example, the Otx, Emx, Dmbx, Gbx, En and Hox gene families. We describe the evolutionary history of the homeobox gene superfamily, as inferred from molecular phylogenetics and chromosomal mapping. Studies of amphioxus, a close relative of vertebrates, have(More)
The arrangement of Hox genes into physical clusters is fundamental to the patterning of animal body plans, through the phenomenon of colinearity. Other homeobox genes are often described as dispersed, implying they are not arranged into clusters. Contrary to this view, however, two clusters of non-Hox homeobox genes have been reported: the amphioxus ParaHox(More)
We report the cDNA sequence and expression of a mouse homeobox gene, Dmbx1, from the PRD class and comparison to its human orthologue. The gene defines a new homeobox gene family, Dmbx, phylogenetically distinct from the Ptx, Alx, Prx Otx, Gsc, Otp and Pax gene families. The Dmbx1 gene is expressed in the developing mouse diencephalon, midbrain and(More)
Nanog is a recently discovered ANTP class homeobox gene. Mouse Nanog is expressed in the inner cell mass and in embryonic stem cells and has roles in self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency. Here we describe the location, genomic organization, and relative ages of all human NANOG pseudogenes, comprising ten processed pseudogenes and one tandem(More)