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Extensive practice involving sustained attention can lead to changes in brain structure. Here, we report evidence of structural differences in the lower brainstem of participants engaged in the long-term practice of meditation. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed higher gray matter density in lower brain stem regions of experienced meditators(More)
Due to its unique sensitivity to tissue microstructure, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has found many applications in clinical and fundamental science. With few exceptions, a more precise correspondence between physiological or biophysical properties and the obtained diffusion parameters remain uncertain due to lack of specificity. In(More)
Mindfulness meditation is a set of attention-based, regulatory, and self-inquiry training regimes. Although the impact of mindfulness training (MT) on self-regulation is well established, the neural mechanisms supporting such plasticity are poorly understood. MT is thought to act through interoceptive salience and attentional control mechanisms, but until(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The penumbra of ischemic stroke consists of hypoperfused, but not irreversibly damaged, tissue surrounding the ischemic core. The purpose of this study was to determine viability thresholds in the ischemic penumbra, defined as the perfusion/diffusion mismatch in hyperacute stroke, by the use of diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI(More)
OBJECT In this study the authors tested the hypothesis that the estimate of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water is a reliable pathophysiological index of the viability of ischemic brain tissue. METHODS Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose (CMRO2 and CMRglc, respectively) were measured using(More)
With its unparalleled ability to safely generate high-contrast images of soft tissues, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has remained at the forefront of diagnostic clinical medicine. Unfortunately due to resolution limitations, clinical scans are most useful for detecting macroscopic structural changes associated with a small number of pathologies.(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful tool in the study of the course of nerve fiber bundles in the human brain. Using DTI, the local fiber orientation in each image voxel can be described by a diffusion tensor which is constructed from local measurements of diffusion coefficients along several directions. The measured diffusion coefficients and(More)
The authors determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of contrast agent bolus passage and compared the results with those obtained by O-15 labeled water (H215O) and positron emission tomography (PET). Six pigs were examined by MRI and PET under normo- and hypercapnic conditions. After dose normalization and introduction of(More)
The authors measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) by bolus tracking of a novel ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) contrast agent (NC100150) and compared absolute and relative perfusion measurements with those obtained by a standard gadolinium-based contrast agent. They found a linear correlation between the two(More)
PURPOSE To compare acute measurements of flow heterogeneity (FH) and mean transit time (MTT) with follow-up data to determine which method yields better predictive measures of final infarct volumes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-three patients with symptoms of stroke underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during the acute stage, and the tissue at risk(More)