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Due to its unique sensitivity to tissue microstructure, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has found many applications in clinical and fundamental science. With few exceptions, a more precise correspondence between physiological or biophysical properties and the obtained diffusion parameters remain uncertain due to lack of specificity. In(More)
Extensive practice involving sustained attention can lead to changes in brain structure. Here, we report evidence of structural differences in the lower brainstem of participants engaged in the long-term practice of meditation. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed higher gray matter density in lower brain stem regions of experienced meditators(More)
Mindfulness meditation is a set of attention-based, regulatory, and self-inquiry training regimes. Although the impact of mindfulness training (MT) on self-regulation is well established, the neural mechanisms supporting such plasticity are poorly understood. MT is thought to act through interoceptive salience and attentional control mechanisms, but until(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The penumbra of ischemic stroke consists of hypoperfused, but not irreversibly damaged, tissue surrounding the ischemic core. The purpose of this study was to determine viability thresholds in the ischemic penumbra, defined as the perfusion/diffusion mismatch in hyperacute stroke, by the use of diffusion- and perfusion-weighted MRI(More)
OBJECT In this study the authors tested the hypothesis that the estimate of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of water is a reliable pathophysiological index of the viability of ischemic brain tissue. METHODS Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose (CMRO2 and CMRglc, respectively) were measured using(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The integrity of motor pathways and functional connectivity patterns are important in assessing plastic changes related to successful recovery, to obtain prognostic information and to monitor future therapeutic strategies of stroke patients. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) that changes in axonal integrity along the corticospinal(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the leading modality for studying the working brain. Being based on measuring the haemodynamic changes after enhanced mass neuronal activity the spatiotemporal resolution of the method is somewhat limited. Alternative MR-based methods for detection of brain activity have been proposed and investigated(More)
With its unparalleled ability to safely generate high-contrast images of soft tissues, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has remained at the forefront of diagnostic clinical medicine. Unfortunately due to resolution limitations, clinical scans are most useful for detecting macroscopic structural changes associated with a small number of pathologies.(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful tool in the study of the course of nerve fiber bundles in the human brain. Using DTI, the local fiber orientation in each image voxel can be described by a diffusion tensor which is constructed from local measurements of diffusion coefficients along several directions. The measured diffusion coefficients and(More)
The authors measured cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) in pigs by gadodiamide bolus injections and the bolus tracking technique. Two different pulse sequences were applied and compared: gradient-echo (GE) and spin-echo (SE) echoplanar imaging (EPI). After normalization of CBF and CBV values to the area under(More)