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Epigenetic pathways can regulate gene expression by controlling and interpreting chromatin modifications. Cancer cells are characterized by altered epigenetic landscapes, and commonly exploit the chromatin regulatory machinery to enforce oncogenic gene expression programs. Although chromatin alterations are, in principle, reversible and often amenable to(More)
Peter L. Greenberg,1 Heinz Tuechler,2 Julie Schanz,3 Guillermo Sanz,4 Guillermo Garcia-Manero,5 Francesc Solé,6 John M. Bennett,7 David Bowen,8 Pierre Fenaux,9 Francois Dreyfus,10 Hagop Kantarjian,5 Andrea Kuendgen,11 Alessandro Levis,12 Luca Malcovati,13 Mario Cazzola,13 Jaroslav Cermak,14 Christa Fonatsch,15 Michelle M. Le Beau,16 Marilyn L. Slovak,17(More)
The term 'mastocytosis' denotes a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormal growth and accumulation of mast cells (MC) in one or more organ systems. Over the last 20 years, there has been an evolution in accepted classification systems for this disease. In light of such developments and novel useful markers, it seems appropriate now to(More)
We have generated a large, unique database that includes morphologic, clinical, cytogenetic, and follow-up data from 2124 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) at 4 institutions in Austria and 4 in Germany. Cytogenetic analyses were successfully performed in 2072 (97.6%) patients, revealing clonal abnormalities in 1084 (52.3%) patients. Numeric and(More)
Although a classification for mastocytosis and diagnostic criteria are available, there remains a need to define standards for the application of diagnostic tests, clinical evaluations, and treatment responses. To address these demands, leading experts discussed current issues and standards in mastocytosis in a Working Conference. The present article(More)
Activation of tissue mast cells (MCs) and their abnormal growth and accumulation in various organs are typically found in primary MC disorders also referred to as mastocytosis. However, increasing numbers of patients are now being informed that their clinical findings are due to MC activation (MCA) that is neither associated with mastocytosis nor with a(More)
The classification, scoring systems, and response criteria for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) have recently been updated and have become widely accepted. In addition, several new effective targeted drugs for patients with MDS have been developed. The current article provides a summary of updated and newly proposed markers, criteria, and standards in MDS,(More)
The BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib represents the current frontline therapy in chronic myeloid leukemia. Because many patients develop imatinib resistance, 2 second-generation drugs, nilotinib and dasatinib, displaying increased potency against BCR-ABL were developed. To predict potential side effects and novel medical uses, we generated(More)
In most patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM), including aggressive SM and mast cell leukemia (MCL), neoplastic cells express the oncogenic KIT mutation D816V. KIT D816V is associated with constitutive tyrosine kinase (TK) activity and thus represents an attractive drug target. However, imatinib and most other TK inhibitors fail to block the TK activity(More)
The term mast cell activation syndrome (MCAS) is finding increasing use as a diagnosis for subjects who present with signs and symptoms involving the dermis, gastrointestinal track, and cardiovascular system frequently accompanied by neurologic complaints. Such patients often have undergone multiple extensive medical evaluations by different physicians in(More)