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OBJECTIVE Atypical antipsychotics are thought not to elevate prolactin levels. The authors examined data suggesting that atypical antipsychotics do elevate prolactin levels but more transiently than typical antipsychotics. METHOD Prolactin levels in 18 male patients with schizophrenia who were receiving atypical antipsychotics were monitored over the(More)
BACKGROUND Continuous, but not intermittent, infusion with a conventional antipsychotic (haloperidol, HAL) can induce the vacuous chewing movement (VCM) syndrome in rats. The objective of this study was to determine whether continuous, versus intermittent, olanzapine (OLZ) infusion differently affects the development of VCMs. METHODS Experiment 1: Animals(More)
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a late side effect of long-term antipsychotic use in humans, and the vacuous chewing movement (VCM) model has been used routinely to study this movement disorder in rats. Recent receptor occupancy studies in humans and rats have found that antipsychotics given in doses which lead to moderate levels of D(2) receptor blockade can(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that antipsychotics (APs) that lead to sustained blockade of dopamine D(2) receptors are more likely to induce acute extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) compared to APs that only occupy D(2) receptors transiently. It is unclear, however, whether a similar relationship exists for long-term AP-induced motoric side effects like(More)
RATIONALE A dose-response relationship between dopamine D(2) occupancy and acute extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) has been well established. However, the link with the induction of tardive dyskinesia (TD) is less clear. OBJECTIVES To ascertain the nature and extent of D(2) receptor occupancy effects on haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in(More)
OBJECTIVE To undertake a selective review of the epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD), with emphasis on the potential influence of estrogen in its expression. METHOD Both Medline and Psycinfo databases were used to search for articles with the following key words: tardive dyskinesia, humans, animals, dopamine, estrogen,(More)
In the field of schizophrenia research, as in other areas of psychiatry, there is a sense of frustration that greater advances have not been made over the years, calling into question existing research strategies. Arguably, many purported gains claimed by research have been "lost in translation," resulting in limited impact on diagnosis and treatment in the(More)
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