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OBJECTIVE Insulin has mitogenic effects, although hyperglycemia may be a risk factor for cancer in type 2 diabetes. It remains uncertain whether use of insulin increases cancer risk because of its effect on cell growth and proliferation or decreases cancer risk because of its glucose-lowering effect. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A 1:2-matched new insulin(More)
Diabetes and obesity are complex diseases associated with insulin resistance and fatty liver. The latter is characterized by dysregulation of the Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and IGF-I pathways and expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). In China, multicomponent traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diabetes for centuries. In this(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Aside from hyperglycemia and hypertension, other metabolic factors may determine renal outcome. We examined risk associations of metabolic syndrome with new onset of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 5,829 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled between 1995 and 2005.(More)
Diabetes is a complex disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and multiple phenotypes. In 1995, we used a doctor-nurse-clerk team and structured protocol to establish the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry in a quality improvement program. By 2009, we had accrued 2616 clinical events in 9588 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients with a follow-up duration of 6(More)
OBJECTIVE LDL cholesterol <2.80 mmol/l was associated with increased cancer risk in type 2 diabetes. We explored the 1) interaction between low LDL cholesterol and albuminuria and 2) interaction between copresence of these two risk factors and statin use for cancer in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed prospective data for 3,793(More)
OBJECTIVE The study aims to test whether biological interaction between hyperglycemia and albuminuria can explain the inconsistent findings from epidemiological studies and clinical trials about effects of hyperglycemia on stroke in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 6,445 Hong Kong Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes and free of(More)
An 8-year prospective analysis of 1,074 type 2 diabetic patients OBJECTIVE — We report the independent risk association of type 2 diabetic nephropathy with the zϪ2 allele of the 5Ј-(CA) n microsatellite and C-106T promoter polymorphisms of the aldose reductase gene (ALR2) using a case-control design. In this expanded cohort, we examined their predictive(More)
OBJECTIVE Clinical and experimental studies suggest cross-talk between lipid metabolism and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore interactions between these two systems in mediating cancer risk in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cohort of 4,160 Chinese patients with type 2(More)
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