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The CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) exhibits remarkable instability upon transmission from mothers with premutation alleles. A collaboration of 13 laboratories in eight countries was established to examine four issues concerning FMR1 CGG-repeat instability among females with premutation(More)
OBJECTIVE Myotonic dystrophy type 1 and 2 (DM1/DM2) are multisystemic diseases with common cognitive deficits beside the cardinal muscular symptoms. We performed a comprehensive analysis of cerebral abnormalities to compare the neuropsychological defects with findings in different imaging methods in the same cohort of patients. METHODS Neuropsychological(More)
To elucidate the function of the FMR1 gene, we applied RNA in situ hybridization to cryosections of mice from different developmental stages. The murine Fmr-1 was found transcribed in a ubiquitous manner with an expression pattern similar to glyceraldehyd phosphate dehydrogenase, Gapdh, which was used as a control gene. A significant difference in the Fmr-1(More)
We demonstrate here that somatic variation of CGG repeat length is based on a mosaic of cells with different but stable FMR-1 alleles and does not reflect permanent mitotic instability. The length of a particular allele in an individual cell was maintained in progeny cells establishing a clone. The mutation patterns of multiple repeats in the DNA of fetal(More)
Gene mapping data indicate that the human X chromosome is enriched in genes that affect both, higher cognitive efficiency and reproductive success. This raises the question whether these functions are ancient, or whether conserved X-linked genes were recruited to new functions. We have studied three X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) genes by RNA in situ(More)
Myotonic dystrophy (DM1) and proximal myotonic myopathy (PROMM or DM2) are two distinct muscular disorders with multisystemic involvement. Both have previously been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment and white matter lesions detected by cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, the extent of brain atrophy was investigated in(More)
We have analysed the mitotic behaviour of expanded CTG repeats in somatic tissues and cultured somatic cells from myotonic dystrophy (DM) fetuses using indirect and direct methods. Heterogeneity of expansions between fetal tissues was demonstrated in a 16 week old fetus whereas there was no evidence for such a somatic heterogeneity in a 13 week old fetus.(More)
Thirteen new cases of a pericentric inversion 2 collected from different laboratories are reported. In addition 41 cases of a pericentric inversion 2 were reviewed from the literature. The pooled data were analysed using Weinberg's proband method to evaluate the risk of a carrier for either children with congenital anomalies or reproductive wastage. In the(More)
Methylation of a premutation was found in a small percentage of blood cells in a male premutation carrier for the FMR1 mutation. To investigate the inter-tissue heterogeneity and possible clinical implications of this finding, fibroblast cells from the subject were also studied. Although the premutation size was found to be the same in leukocytes and(More)
Modern biotechnology has developed powerful tools for genetic engineering and flower colours are an excellent object to study possibilities and limitations of engineering strategies. Osteospermum hybrida became a popular ornamental plant within the last 20 years. Many cultivars display rose to lilac flower colours mainly based on delphinidin-derived(More)