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BACKGROUND Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. We studied the effect of duodenal infusion of donor feces in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. METHODS We randomly assigned patients to receive one of three therapies: an initial vancomycin regimen (500 mg orally(More)
During TB cytokines play a role in host defence. To determine the cytokine pattern during various disease stages of TB, serum levels of IL-12, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured in 81 patients with active TB, 15 patients during therapy and 26 patients after anti-tuberculous therapy as well as in 16 persons who had been in close(More)
To determine the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the immune response to pneumonia, C3H/HeJ mice (which display a mutant nonfunctional TLR4) and C3H/HeN wild-type mice were intranasally infected with either Streptococcus pneumoniae (a common gram-positive respiratory pathogen) or Klebsiella pneumoniae (a common gram-negative respiratory pathogen). In(More)
The detection of heat-labile enterotoxin LT-A and heat-stable enterotoxin ST Ia and ST Ib genes from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) by using oligonucleotide DNA probes and the PCR was evaluated in reconstruction experiments and by testing stool specimens from 29 healthy subjects and from 50 patients with diarrhea who had returned from the(More)
The clinical significance of differences between antibiotics in endotoxin-liberating potential is unknown. Thirty patients with gram-negative urosepsis were randomized between imipenem and ceftazidime, which have, respectively, a low and a high endotoxin-liberating potential in vitro. In patients treated with ceftazidime, a slower defervescence was noticed.(More)
BACKGROUND Drainage of the obstructed biliary tree is the mainstay of therapy for patients with acute cholangitis; antibiotic therapy is complementary. It is unknown whether it is necessary to continue therapy with antibiotics once biliary drainage is achieved and signs of systemic inflammation have subsided. METHODS Patients who presented with acute(More)
Cell recruitment is a multistep process regulated by cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Previous work has indicated that the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) may also play a role in this mechanism, presumably by an interaction with the beta(2) integrin CD11b/CD18. Indeed, an essential role of uPAR in neutrophil recruitment during(More)
Interleukin (IL)-1 signaling is required for the containment of infections with intracellular microorganisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Leishmania major. To determine the role of IL-1 in the host response to tuberculosis, we infected IL-1 type I receptor-deficient (IL-1R(-/-)) mice, in which IL-1 does not exert effects, with Mycobacterium(More)
In 1999, an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease affected many visitors to a flower show in the Netherlands. To identify the source of the outbreak, we performed an environmental investigation, as well as a case-control study among visitors and a serologic cohort study among exhibitors to measure exposure to possible sources. Of 77,061 visitors, 188 became ill(More)
Interferon (IFN)-gamma plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Production of IFN-gamma is stimulated by synergistic effects of interleukin (IL)-18, IL-12, and IL-15. To investigate the regulation of IFN-gamma production during severe gram-negative infection, the plasma concentrations of IFN-gamma, IL-18, IL-12, and IL-15 were measured in 83(More)