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BACKGROUND Malaria control is difficult where there is intense year-round transmission of multiple plasmodium species, such as in Papua New Guinea. METHODS Between April 2005 and July 2007, we conducted an open-label, randomized, parallel-group study of conventional chloroquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine,(More)
Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that feeding diets which limit the amount of fermentable substrate entering the large intestine would protect pigs against experimental infection with Serpulina hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery. Experiment 1 examined the effect of grain processing (hammer milling vs. steam flaking)(More)
The development of effective malaria vaccines and immune biomarkers of malaria is a high priority for malaria control and elimination. Ags expressed by merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum are likely to be important targets of human immunity and are promising vaccine candidates, but very few Ags have been studied. We developed an approach to assess Ab(More)
Malaria elimination strategies require surveillance of the parasite population for genetic changes that demand a public health response, such as new forms of drug resistance. Here we describe methods for the large-scale analysis of genetic variation in Plasmodium falciparum by deep sequencing of parasite DNA obtained from the blood of patients with malaria,(More)
The disposition of chloroquine (CQ) and the related 4-aminoquinoline, piperaquine (PQ), were compared in Papua New Guinean children with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-two children were randomized to 3 days of PQ phosphate at 20 mg/kg/day (12 mg of PQ base/kg/day) coformulated with dihydroartemisinin (DHA-PQ), and twenty children were randomized to 3 days of(More)
BACKGROUND Antibodies targeting blood stage antigens are important in protection against malaria, but the principle targets remain unclear. Erythrocyte-binding antigens (EBAs) are important erythrocyte invasion ligands used by merozoites and may be targets of protective immunity, but there are limited data examining their potential importance. METHODS We(More)
Two prehistoric migrations peopled the Pacific. One reached New Guinea and Australia, and a second, more recent, migration extended through Melanesia and from there to the Polynesian islands. These migrations were accompanied by two distinct populations of the specific human pathogen Helicobacter pylori, called hpSahul and hspMaori, respectively. hpSahul(More)
Although recent research revealed an impact of westernization on diversity and composition of the human gut microbiota, the exact consequences on metacommunity characteristics are insufficiently understood, and the underlying ecological mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, we have compared the fecal microbiota of adults from two non-industrialized(More)
In order to determine the pharmacokinetic disposition of chloroquine (CQ) and its active metabolite, desethylchloroquine (DECQ), when administered as intermittent presumptive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria, 30 Papua New Guinean women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and 30 age-matched nonpregnant women were administered three daily(More)
Human chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a chitinolytic enzyme with suggested anti-fungal properties. Previous studies have suggested that chitotriosidase may also protect individuals against filarial nematode infections and malaria. A mutant allele, which renders chitotriosidase unstable and enzymatically inactive, is found at a frequency of >20% in Caucasians and(More)