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The germination of dormant spores of Bacillus species is the first crucial step in the return of spores to vegetative growth, and is induced by nutrients and a variety of non-nutrient agents. Nutrient germinants bind to receptors in the spore's inner membrane and this interaction triggers the release of the spore core's huge depot of dipicolinic acid and(More)
Endospores of Bacillus spp., especially Bacillus subtilis, have served as experimental models for exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of spores and their resistance to environmental insults. In this review we summarize the molecular laboratory model of spore resistance mechanisms and attempt to use the model as a basis for(More)
A number of mechanisms are responsible for the resistance of spores of Bacillus species to heat, radiation and chemicals and for spore killing by these agents. Spore resistance to wet heat is determined largely by the water content of spore core, which is much lower than that in the growing cell protoplast. A lower core water content generally gives more(More)
Spores of Bacillus subtilis with a mutation in spoVF cannot synthesize dipicolinic acid (DPA) and are too unstable to be purified and studied in detail. However, the spores of a strain lacking the three major germinant receptors (termed Deltager3), as well as spoVF, can be isolated, although they spontaneously germinate much more readily than Deltager3(More)
Dormant Bacillus subtilis spores germinate in the presence of particular nutrients called germinants. The spores are thought to recognize germinants through receptor proteins encoded by the gerA family of operons, which includes gerA, gerB, and gerK. We sought to substantiate this putative function of the GerA family proteins by characterizing spore(More)
Endospore formation by Bacillus subtilis involves three differentiating cell types, the predivisional cell, the mother cell, and the forespore. Here we report the program of gene expression in the forespore, which is governed by the RNA polymerase sigma factors sigma(F) and sigma(G) and the DNA-binding proteins RsfA and SpoVT. The sigma(F) factor turns on(More)
Dormant spores of Bacillus, Clostridium and related species can survive for years, largely because spore DNA is well protected against damage by many different agents. This DNA protection is partly a result of the high level of Ca(2+)-dipicolinic acid in spores and DNA repair during spore outgrowth, but is primarily caused by the saturation of spore DNA(More)
Under conditions that are not conducive to growth, such as nutrient depletion, many members of the orders Bacillales and Clostridiales can sporulate, generating dormant and resistant spores that can survive in the absence of nutrients for years under harsh conditions. However, when nutrients are again present, these spores can return to active growth(More)
AIMS To determine the mechanisms of Bacillus subtilis spore killing by hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide, and its resistance against them. METHODS AND RESULTS Spores of B. subtilis treated with hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide did not accumulate damage to their DNA, as spores with or without the two major DNA protective alpha/beta-type small, acid soluble(More)
Fur (ferric uptake regulator) proteins control iron uptake in many Gram-negative bacteria. Although Fur homologues have been identified in Gram-positive bacteria, their roles in gene regulation are unknown. Genome sequencing has revealed three fur homologues in Bacillus subtilis: yqkL, yqfV and ygaG. We demonstrate that yqkL encodes an iron uptake(More)