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The roentgenographic parameters of motion in normal and abnormal shoulders, including the movement of the scapula, arm angle, glenohumeral angle, scapulothoracic angle, excursion of the humeral head, and instant center of motion for abduction in the plane of the scapula, were determined in twelve normal subjects and fifteen patients. The scapula rotated(More)
The forces and moments in the shaft of a distal femoral replacement were measured by telemetry for a subject during different activities, and calculations were then made of the forces at the knee. The axial force showed a small peak at heel-strike followed by two main peaks during stance. In level walking, the peak axial force was between 1,487 and 1,718 N(More)
Data from an epidemiological sample (n = 1206) of British schoolchildren were used to estimate the proportions of 9- to 10-year-olds with specific arithmetic difficulties (SAD), combined with arithmetic-and-reading difficulties (ARD), and specific reading difficulties (SRD). Children in the sample contributed scores on separate tests of arithmetic, reading(More)
Stimulation of one sensory modality can induce perceptual experiences in another modality that reflect synaesthetic correspondences among different dimensions of sensory experience. In visual-hearing synaesthesia, for example, higher pitched sounds induce visual images that are brighter, smaller, higher in space, and sharper than those induced by lower(More)
BACKGROUND This study examines if visual attention in autism is spatially overfocused (Townsend & Courchesne, 1994) and if there is an associated deficit in broadening the spatial spread of attention. METHOD Two crosshairs were presented on each trial separated by a brief (500 ms) interval. There was a modest difference in the lengths of the two hairs in(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the forces in the glenohumeral joint for isometric abduction (including all directions of rotation) in the plane of the scapula. The lines of actions of muscles were obtained from 3 upper quarter specimens, electromyographic data was used, as well as geometrical parameters of shoulder motion. The main assumption(More)
Experiments were performed on two patients with custom-made instrumented massive proximal femoral prostheses implanted after tumour resection. In vivo axial forces transmitted along the prostheses were telemetered during level walking, single- and double-leg stance, and isometric exercises of the hip muscles. These activities varied the lever arms available(More)
Twenty-three knees were sectioned, digitized, and standardized to determine the 'average' three-dimensional bony geometry and ligamentous attachments. Data on normal knee motion were obtained from a cadaveric study. An algorithm was written to simulate three-dimensional patella motion. Verification of the knee model was achieved by determining femoro-tibial(More)
Two distal femoral replacements were instrumented to measure axial force, torque and bending moments in the prosthesis shaft. Data are reported up to 2.5 years for the following activities: uni- and bi-lateral standing, walking, stair climbing and descending, treadmill walking, jogging and jumping. In the first subject the greatest averaged peak shaft(More)
By analysing sections of distal femurs in the computer, and by making direct measurements, the posterior femoral condyles were shown to closely fit spherical surfaces. The center of the spheres were then used as reference points and used to define reference axes in a motion study. In flexing from 0 to 120 degrees the medial femoral condyle moved little, the(More)