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Compared to most quadrupedal mammals, humans are energetically inefficient when running at high speeds. This fact can be taken to mean that human dipedalism evolved for reasons other than to reduce relative energy cost durding locomotion. Recalculation of the energy expending expended during human walking at normal speeds shows that 1) human bipedalism is(More)
The importance of individual identity and kinship has been demonstrated in the social behavior of many nonhuman primates, with some evidence suggesting that individually distinctive acoustic features are present in their vocalizations as well. In order to systematically test whether acoustic cues to identity are reliably present across the vocal repertoire(More)
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) habitually walk both bipedally and quadrupedally, and have been a common point of reference for understanding the evolution of bipedal locomotion in early ape-like hominins. Here we compare the kinematics, kinetics, and energetics of bipedal and quadrupedal walking and running in a sample of five captive chimpanzees. Kinematics(More)
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