Learn More
The envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) consists of a complex of gp120 and gp41. gp120 determines viral tropism by binding to target-cell receptors, while gp41 mediates fusion between viral and cellular membranes. Previous studies identified an alpha-helical domain within gp41 composed of a trimer of two interacting(More)
Infection with HIV-1 is initiated by fusion of cellular and viral membranes. The gp41 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope plays a major role in this process, but the structure of gp41 is unknown. We have identified a stable, proteinase-resistant structure comprising two peptides, N-51 and C-43, derived from a recombinant protein fragment of the gp41 ectodomain.(More)
envelope complexreadily undergoes receptor-activated The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is conformational change suggests that its native state is an enveloped virus, and its envelope protein complex metastable, again similar to the pH-activated envelope controls the key process of viral entry. This envelope protein of influenza virus (Carr et(More)
Serine racemase (SR), localized to astrocytic glia that ensheathe synapses, converts L-serine to D-serine, an endogenous ligand of the NMDA receptor. We report the activation of SR by glutamate neurotransmission involving alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors via glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP) and the physiologic(More)
Recent mathematical models have been developed to study the dynamics of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) under imatinib treatment. None of these models incorporates the anti-leukemia immune response. Recent experimental data show that imatinib treatment may promote the development of anti-leukemia immune responses as patients enter remission. Using these(More)
We develop a mathematical framework for modeling regulatory mechanisms in the immune system. The model describes dynamics of key components of the immune network within two compartments: lymph node and tissue. We demonstrate using numerical simulations that our system can eliminate virus-infected cells, which are characterized by a tendency to increase(More)
The HIV-1 gp41 protein promotes viral entry by mediating the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. A prominent pocket on the surface of a central trimeric coiled coil within gp41 was previously identified as a potential target for drugs that inhibit HIV-1 entry. We designed a peptide, IQN17, which properly presents this pocket. Utilizing IQN17 and(More)
We derive a model for describing the dynamics of imatinib-treated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). This model is a continuous extension of the agent-based CML model of Roeder et al. (Nat. Med. 12(10), 1181-1184, 2006) and of its recent formulation as a system of difference equations (Kim et al. in Bull. Math. Biol. 70(3), 728-744, 2008). The new model is(More)
HIV-1 entry into cells is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein receptor-binding (gp120) and membrane fusion-promoting (gp41) subunits. The gp41 heptad repeat 1 (HR1) domain is the molecular target of the fusion-inhibitor drug enfuvirtide (T20). The HR1 sequence is highly conserved and therefore considered an attractive target for vaccine development, but(More)