For patients with hippocampal pathology, disagreement exists in the literature over whether retrograde amnesia is temporally limited or very extensive depending on whether the anatomical damage is restricted to this structure or also involves additional temporal cortex. We report a comprehensive assessment of retrograde and anterograde memory functions of a… (More)
From an extensive serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in multiple sclerosis (MS) we have identified 4 cases in which disruption of the blood-brain barrier, as detected by gadolinium-DTPA enhancement, preceded other MRI abnormalities and in 1 case clinical evidence of the new lesion. This supports the view that a defect in the blood-brain barrier,… (More)
Clinical and MRI investigations were carried out on 27 patients with acquired pendular nystagmus in an attempt to delineate possible sites of lesions responsible for pendular nystagmus and mechanisms underlying the frequent ocular disconjugacy of this nystagmus. The aetiologies were multiple sclerosis (n = 21), brainstem stroke (n = 3) and other… (More)
A definitive diagnosis of multiple sclerosis cannot be made at presentation on patients with a clinically isolated syndrome of the optic nerve, spinal cord or brainstem suggestive of demyelination, as dissemination in time is not established. To determine the long-term risk of abnormalities on brain MRI for the development of multiple sclerosis and… (More)
A patient is reported in whom a classic amnesic syndrome developed as a result of repeated episodes of cerebral ischaemia, accompanied by seizures. The amnesia was very severe for both old and newly acquired memories and the critical lesions defined by MRI were circumscribed areas confined to CA1 and CA2 fields of both hippocampi.
We report a collaborative study of 11 patients with upbeat nystagmus in the primary position of gaze. In most cases the nystagmus behaved in accordance with Alexander's Law; in 3 patients convergence enhanced the nystagmus. Lateral gaze was without effect in 7 instances. Static tilt to prone and supine positions altered the characteristics of the nystagmus… (More)
BACKGROUND An intravenous rather than oral course of methylprednisolone is often prescribed for treating acute relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) despite the lack of evidence to support this route of administration. Our double-blind placebo-controlled randomised trial was designed to compare the efficacy of commonly used intravenous and oral steroid… (More)
We performed semiautomated quantitative measurement of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities seen at presentation and at 5-year follow-up in 84 patients presenting with an acute clinically isolated syndrome of the optic nerves, brainstem, or spinal cord suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS). At follow-up, 34 (40%) had developed clinically… (More)
Two patients with longstanding acquired periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) were treated with baclofen, 30 mg/day. Baclofen abolished the PAN and relieved oscillopsia in both patients but was ineffective in another patient with congenital PAN.