Peter Rieckmann

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Monocyte/macrophage differentiation was studied in biopsy samples of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions obtained in the early course of the disease. Macrophages were identified by immunocytochemistry using a panel of antibodies recognizing different macrophage-activation antigens. The number of cells stained with each antibody was related to the demyelinating(More)
We performed a cross-sectional, “bottom-up” observational study of resource use, costs, and quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in Germany. Six centers participated in the study. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire, and a total of 737 patients returned it (response rate 66%). The questionnaire provided information on all(More)
BACKGROUND Glatiramer acetate, approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, reduces relapses and disease activity and burden monitored by MRI. We assessed the efficacy of early treatment with glatiramer acetate in delaying onset of clinically definite multiple sclerosis. METHODS In this randomised, double-blind trial, undertaken(More)
OBJECTIVES Fatigue is one of the most common, yet poorly defined, disabling symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To delineate more clearly the frequency and type of fatigue, we first compared four widely used fatigue scales in consecutive MS patients. Secondly, to further clarify the nature of fatigue, we investigated its relation to physical(More)
We identified eight patients with a distinct magnetic resonance imaging pattern of inhomogeneous cerebral white matter abnormalities and selective involvement of brainstem and spinal tracts. Proton magnetic resonance imaging showed increased lactate in the abnormal white matter. Clinically, the patients had slowly progressive pyramidal, cerebellar, and(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). So far, immunological mechanisms responsible for demyelination have been the focus of interest. However, mechanisms regulating axon maintenance as well as glial precursor-cell proliferation and oligodendrocyte survival might also influence disease outcome. The(More)
BACKGROUND Cladribine provides immunomodulation through selective targeting of lymphocyte subtypes. We report the results of a 96-week phase 3 trial of a short-course oral tablet therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS We randomly assigned 1326 patients in an approximate 1:1:1 ratio to receive one of two cumulative doses(More)
Endothelins are peptides, originally isolated from endothelial cells, with potent vasoactive and mitogenic properties. In this study, we demonstrate that human macrophages synthesize and secrete endothelins. Cultured human macrophages were found by immunocytochemistry to stain positively for endothelin 1 and endothelin 3. Their capability to produce and(More)
Thymomas are thymic epithelial neoplasms, associated with a variety of autoimmune disorders (especially myasthenia gravis), that apparently result from aberrant intra-tumourous thymopoiesis and export of inefficiently tolerized T-cells to the periphery. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) drives the expression of self-antigens in the thymic medulla and plays an(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory neurologic disorder diagnosed in young adults and, due to its chronic course, is responsible for a substantial economic burden. MS is considered to be a multifactorial disease in which both genetic and environmental factors intervene. The well-established human leukocyte antigen (HLA)(More)