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Monocyte/macrophage differentiation was studied in biopsy samples of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions obtained in the early course of the disease. Macrophages were identified by immunocytochemistry using a panel of antibodies recognizing different macrophage-activation antigens. The number of cells stained with each antibody was related to the demyelinating(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). So far, immunological mechanisms responsible for demyelination have been the focus of interest. However, mechanisms regulating axon maintenance as well as glial precursor-cell proliferation and oligodendrocyte survival might also influence disease outcome. The(More)
This review updates and extends earlier Consensus Reports related to current basic and escalating immunomodulatory treatments in multiple sclerosis (MS). The recent literature has been extracted for new evidence from randomized controlled trials, open treatment studies and reported expert opinion, both in original articles and reviews, and evaluates(More)
BACKGROUND Cladribine provides immunomodulation through selective targeting of lymphocyte subtypes. We report the results of a 96-week phase 3 trial of a short-course oral tablet therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS We randomly assigned 1326 patients in an approximate 1:1:1 ratio to receive one of two cumulative doses(More)
In a genome wide association study consisting of 592 German multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and 825 controls we were able to replicate the association of the HLA region with MS independently of previous case control studies. No SNPs outside the HLA region reached a genome wide level of significance. Nevertheless, we found suggestive evidence for an(More)
Inflammation has always been thought of as detrimental in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, emerging genetic data, magnetic-resonance-imaging studies, and immunopathological evidence challenge this simplistic view. The evidence leads to the conclusion that inflammation is tightly regulated, and that its net effect may be beneficial in(More)
OBJECTIVES Fatigue is one of the most common, yet poorly defined, disabling symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). To delineate more clearly the frequency and type of fatigue, we first compared four widely used fatigue scales in consecutive MS patients. Secondly, to further clarify the nature of fatigue, we investigated its relation to physical(More)
T cells are considered to play a pivotal role in orchestrating the self-reactive immune responses in multiple sclerosis (MS). Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a member of the B7/CD28 superfamily of costimulatory molecules exerting inhibitory functions on T cells. Recently, an intronic 7146G/A polymorphism within the PD-1 gene was described and suggested to be(More)
The authors reviewed a series of 10 consecutive patients treated with plasma exchange (PE) for acute, severe optic neuritis (ON) largely unresponsive to previous high-dose IV glucocorticosteroids. PE was associated with an improvement of visual acuity according to the study criteria in 7 of 10 patients. On follow-up, three of these patients continued to(More)
BACKGROUND On the basis of various clinical and MRI measurements, the phase 3 Cladribine Tablets Treating Multiple Sclerosis Orally (CLARITY) study in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) showed that short-course oral treatment with cladribine at cumulative doses of 3·5 and 5·25 mg/kg over 96 weeks was more effective than placebo.(More)