Peter Redgrave

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A selection problem arises whenever two or more competing systems seek simultaneous access to a restricted resource. Consideration of several selection architectures suggests there are significant advantages for systems which incorporate a central switching mechanism. We propose that the vertebrate basal ganglia have evolved as a centralized selection(More)
 We present a biologically plausible model of processing intrinsic to the basal ganglia based on the computational premise that action selection is a primary role of these central brain structures. By encoding the propensity for selecting a given action in a scalar value (the salience), it is shown that action selection may be re-cast in terms of signal(More)
An influential concept in contemporary computational neuroscience is the reward prediction error hypothesis of phasic dopaminergic function. It maintains that midbrain dopaminergic neurons signal the occurrence of unpredicted reward, which is used in appetitive learning to reinforce existing actions that most often lead to reward. However, the availability(More)
Imaging of scattered and reflected light from the surface of neural structures can reveal the functional architecture within large populations of neurons. These techniques exploit, as one of the principal signal sources, reflectance changes produced by local variation in blood volume and oxygen saturation related to neural activity. We found that a major(More)
Unexpected stimuli that are behaviourally significant have the capacity to elicit a short-latency, short-duration burst of firing in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurones. An influential interpretation of the experimental data that characterize this response proposes that dopaminergic neurones have a crucial role in reinforcement learning because they signal(More)
Progressive loss of the ascending dopaminergic projection in the basal ganglia is a fundamental pathological feature of Parkinson's disease. Studies in animals and humans have identified spatially segregated functional territories in the basal ganglia for the control of goal-directed and habitual actions. In patients with Parkinson's disease the loss of(More)
 In a companion paper a new functional architecture was proposed for the basal ganglia based on the premise that these brain structures play a central role in behavioural action selection. The current paper quantitatively describes the properties of the model using analysis and simulation. The decomposition of the basal ganglia into selection and control(More)
Recent studies of the effects of stimulating the superior colliculus (SC) in rodents suggest that this structure mediates at least two classes of response to novel sensory stimuli. One class contains the familiar orienting response, together with movements resembling tracking or pursuit, and appears appropriate for undefined sensory 'events'. The second(More)
Modern neuroimaging techniques rely on neurovascular coupling to show regions of increased brain activation. However, little is known of the neurovascular coupling relationships that exist for inhibitory signals. To address this issue directly we developed a preparation to investigate the signal sources of one of these proposed inhibitory neurovascular(More)
The basal ganglia have been associated with processes of reinforcement learning. A strong line of supporting evidence comes from the recording of dopamine (DA) neurones in behaving monkeys. Unpredicted, biologically salient events, including rewards cause a stereotypic short-latency (70-100 ms), short-duration (100-200 ms) burst of DA activity - the phasic(More)