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Technological developments in imaging guidance, intraoperative imaging, and microscopy have pushed neurosurgeons to the limits of their dexterity and stamina. The introduction of robotically assisted surgery has provided surgeons with improved ergonomics and enhanced visualization, dexterity, and haptic capabilities. This article provides a historical(More)
Technological advances in the modern operating room have pushed neurosurgeons to the limits of their dexterity and stamina. Motion scalers and tremor filters on robots permit unprecedented precision of tool manipulation, upgrading the human hand, and closing the deftness deficit. The evolution of neurosurgical robots from stereotactic systems to hybrid(More)
A novel method for assessing the accuracy of inertial/magnetic sensors is presented. The method, referred to as the "residual matrix" method, is advantageous because it decouples the sensor's error with respect to Earth's gravity vector (attitude residual error: pitch and roll) from the sensor's error with respect to magnetic north (heading residual error),(More)
BACKGROUND Haptic feedback increases operator performance and comfort during telerobotic manipulation. Feedback of grasping pressure is critical in many microsurgical tasks, yet no haptic interface for surgical tools is commercially available. METHODS Literature on the psychophysics of touch was reviewed to define the spectrum of human touch perception(More)
The acceptance of master/slave robotic systems by surgeons may require haptic feedback, not only in the robotic arm, but also to indicate the closing and opening pressure of single degree-of-freedom tools such as forceps. This paper presents the development and initial test results for a prototype set of haptic master/slave forceps. Their low-friction(More)
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