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This paper uses fundamental principles of energy physiology to define minimum cut-off limits for energy intake below which a person of a given sex, age and body weight could not live a normal life-style. These have been derived from whole-body calorimeter and doubly-labelled water measurements in a wide range of healthy adults after due statistical(More)
BACKGROUND Although international interest in classifying subject health status according to adiposity is increasing, no accepted published ranges of percentage body fat currently exist. Empirically identified limits, population percentiles, and z scores have all been suggested as means of setting percentage body fat guidelines, although each has major(More)
Total free living energy expenditure was compared in lean and obese women by the new doubly labelled water method and partitioned into basal metabolism and thermogenesis plus activity by whole body calorimetry. Average energy expenditure was significantly higher in the obese group (10.22 versus 7.99 MJ/day (2445 versus 1911 kcal/day); p less than 0.001)(More)
The Tanita body-fat analyser is a novel device to estimate body fat, based on the principles of bioelectrical impedance. It differs from other impedance systems which use surface electrodes in that the subjects stand bare-footed on a metal sole-plate which incorporates the electrodes, hence impedance is measured through the legs and lower trunk. In 104 men(More)
OBJECTIVE Pharmacological use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta agonists and transgenic overexpression of PPARdelta in mice suggest amelioration of features of the metabolic syndrome through enhanced fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. We hypothesize a similar mechanism operates in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The PPARdelta(More)
1. A modified heart rate (HR) method for predicting total energy expenditure (TEE) was cross-validated against whole-body calorimetry (CAL). Minute-by-minute HR was converted to energy expenditure (EE) using individual calibration curves when HR exceeded a pre-determined 'FLEX' value designed to discriminate periods of activity. ('FLEX' HR was defined as(More)
Twelve women were studied before pregnancy and at 6-wk intervals from 6 to 36 wk gestation. Total energy expenditure (TEE) by the doubly labeled water method, basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy intake, and body composition were assessed on each occasion. There was substantial interindividual variation in the response to pregnancy. Mean total energy costs(More)
Inherited defects in signaling pathways downstream of the insulin receptor have long been suggested to contribute to human type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we describe a mutation in the gene encoding the protein kinase AKT2/PKBbeta in a family that shows autosomal dominant inheritance of severe insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Expression of the(More)
This study assessed whether human food intake is regulated by negative feedback, directly or indirectly, from carbohydrate stores (glycogenostatic model). Six men were studied on three occasions during 7 d of whole-body indirect calorimetry, throughout which they had ad libitum access to one of three covertly manipulated diets: low fat (20% of energy as(More)
BACKGROUND Previous short-term studies (< or =6 h) showed differences in energy expenditure (EE) and macronutrient oxidation in response to overfeeding with different types of dietary carbohydrate. This finding could have implications for obesity. OBJECTIVE We used 96-h continuous whole-body calorimetry in 8 lean and 5 obese women to assess metabolic(More)