Peter R. Mouton

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Stroke is the third leading cause of death, and vascular dementia the second cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. CADASIL (for cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) causes a type of stroke and dementia whose key features include recurrent subcortical ischaemic events and vascular dementia and(More)
Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by ataxin-3 with a polyglutamine expansion. It is proposed that a toxic cleavage fragment of mutant ataxin-3 alternatively spliced isoform mjd1a triggers neurodegeneration, although this fragment has not yet been detected in the brains of MJD patients or in animal models. We have(More)
We tested the hypothesis that synaptic defects in the hippocampus of individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) correlate with the severity of cognitive impairment. Three postmortem groups were studied: controls with normal and stable cognition; cognitively intact subjects with senile plaque densities diagnostic for possible AD (p-AD) and neurofibrillary(More)
Lineal structures in biological tissue support a wide variety of physiological functions, including membrane stabilization, vascular perfusion, and cell-to-cell communication. In 1953, Smith and Guttman demonstrated a stereological method to estimate the total length density (Lv) of linear objects based on random intersections with a two-dimensional(More)
A loss of hippocampal neurons and synapses had been considered a hallmark of normal aging and, furthermore, to be a substrate of age-related learning and memory deficits. Recent stereological studies in humans have shown that only a relatively minor neuron loss occurs with aging and that this loss is restricted to specific brain regions, including(More)
CONTEXT Autism often involves early brain overgrowth, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although prefrontal abnormality has been theorized to underlie some autistic symptoms, the cellular defects that cause abnormal overgrowth remain unknown. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether early brain overgrowth in children with autism involves excess neuron(More)
We report that a low-calorie diet can lessen the severity of neurochemical deficits and motor dysfunction in a primate model of Parkinson's disease. Adult male rhesus monkeys were maintained for 6 months on a reduced-calorie diet [30% caloric restriction (CR)] or an ad libitum control diet after which they were subjected to treatment with a neurotoxin to(More)
Ethylmercury in thimerosal-preserved childhood vaccines has been suggested to be neurotoxic and to contribute to the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism. Immune system function may be an important factor influencing vulnerability of the developing nervous system to thimerosal. This possibility is based in part on a report by Hornig et(More)
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) intoxicated rodents develop a peripheral neuropathy characterized by sensory nerve conduction deficits associated with disturbances of nerve fiber geometry and axonal atrophy. To investigate the possibility that glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)-amide (GLP-1) receptor agonism may influence axonal structure and function through(More)
Development, ageing, and a variety of neurological disorders are characterized by selective alterations in specific populations of nerve cells which are, in turn, associated with changes in the numbers of synapses in the target fields of these neurons. To begin to delineate the significance of changes in synapses in development, ageing, and disease, it is(More)