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Retinal Müller (glial) cells metabolize glucose to lactate, which is preferentially taken up by photoreceptor neurons as fuel for their oxidative metabolism. We explored whether lactate supply to neurons is a glial function controlled by neuronal signals. For this, we used subcellular fluorescence imaging and either amperometric or optical biosensors to(More)
1. The membrane properties of cone inner segments dissociated enzymatically from monkey retina were studied under voltage-clamp conditions using patch pipettes in the whole-cell clamp configuration. 2. A noninactivating, voltage-gated calcium current was evoked at potentials positive to -60 mV and peaked between -30 and -20 mV when barium was substituted(More)
1. Single, isolated, rod photoreceptors were obtained by enzymatic dissociation of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) retina. These solitary cells retained the morphological features of rods of the intact retina and could be maintained in culture for several days. Solitary cells were penetrated with one or two micropipettes and their(More)
THe current suppressed by light, the generator current, was studied in solitary salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) rod photoreceptors with the single-micropipette voltage-clamp technique. The effects of Ca, cyclic GMP, and voltage were measured while voltage- and Ca-activated currents of the inner segment were blocked with Co, Cs, and TEA (tetraethylammonium).(More)
To assess the regenerative capability of the photoreceptor synapse, we have isolated and cultured photoreceptors from the mature salamander retina. Both rod and cone photoreceptors were able to regenerate processes within 3 d of plating. Cells extended numerous actin-containing filopodia as well as a few neuritic processes. The neurites contained(More)
Imaging of Ca 2ϩ dynamics within the presynaptic terminals of salamander rod photoreceptors.though the overall importance of Ca 2ϩ as a mediator of cell signaling and neurotransmitter release has long been appreciated, the details of Ca 2ϩ dynamics within the inner segments of vertebrate rod photore-ceptors are just beginning to be elucidated. Even less is(More)
We studied how intrinsic membrane properties affect the gain and temporal pattern of response in bipolar cells dissociated from retinae of tiger salamanders. Currents specified by a pseudorandom binary sequence, an m-sequence, superimposed on various means, were injected into the cells. From the resultant membrane voltage response for each mean current,(More)
Adult neurons, isolated from the salamander retina, were maintained in low-density cell culture and examined for synapse formation by electrophysiological and electron microscopic techniques. Morphologically identifiable rod, cone, horizontal, bipolar, and amacrine/ganglion cells survived for many months, grew processes, and formed numerous cell contacts.(More)
The effect of calcium ions on the cGMP-activated current of outer segment membrane was examined by the excised-patch technique. Changes in the extracellular calcium concentration had marked effects on the cGMP-activated current, while changes in intracellular calcium concentration were ineffective. Changes in calcium concentration in the absence of cGMP had(More)
To test the effects of isolation on adult neurons, we investigated the fine structure and synaptic activity of rod cells dissociated from the mature salamander retina and maintained in vitro. First, freshly isolated rod cells appeared remarkably similar to their counterparts in the intact retina: the outer segment retained its stack of membranous disks and(More)