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BACKGROUND Syphilitic ulcers are known to facilitate the transmission of HIV infection, but the effect of syphilis infection on HIV viral loads and CD4 cell counts is poorly understood. METHODS We abstracted medical records for HIV-infected male syphilis patients seen at three clinics in San Francisco and Los Angeles from January 2001 to April 2003. We(More)
BACKGROUND The optimal approach for diagnosing primary HIV-1 infection has not been defined. OBJECTIVE To determine the usefulness of symptoms and virologic tests for diagnosing primary HIV-1 infection. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING A teaching hospital in Los Angeles and a university research center in San Diego, California. PATIENTS 436(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence among injection drug users in 4 US cities from 1994 through 2004. METHODS Demographic characteristics, behaviors, and prevalence of HCV antibody among 5088 injection drug users aged 18-40 years from Baltimore, Maryland; Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles, California; and New York, New York, enrolled(More)
OBJECTIVES We examined the relation between childhood sexual abuse and injection drug use initiation among young adult injection drug users. METHODS We used mixed effect linear models to compare age at first injection among 2143 young injection drug users by first sexual abuse age categories. RESULTS The participants were predominantly male (63.3%) and(More)
OBJECTIVES A high incidence of HIV continues among men who have sex with men (MSM) in industrialised nations and research indicates many MSM do not disclose their HIV status to sex partners. Themes as to why MSM attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Los Angeles and Seattle do and do not disclose their HIV status are identified. METHODS(More)
To quantify the risk of death among recent-onset (< 5 years) injection drug users, we enrolled 2089 injection drug users (IDUs) age <or= 35 years (minimum age = 18 years) between 1997 and 1999. Median age was 24 years, 62.4% were male, 54.5% were non-Hispanic White, mean duration of injecting was 3 years, and 45.4% injected daily within the prior 6 months.(More)
BACKGROUND New injection drug users (IDUs) are at high risk for blood-borne viral infections. Given U.S. policy to only fund proven-effective HIV prevention interventions, insights into conducting intervention trials among young IDUs are provided here by describing methods and participants' characteristics in the CIDUS III/DUIT study. METHODS In(More)
BACKGROUND Injection drug users (IDUs) and their sex partners account for an increasing proportion of new AIDS and HIV cases in the United States, but public debate and policy regarding the effectiveness of various HIV prevention programs for them must cite data from other countries, from non-street-recruited IDUs already in treatment, or other programs,(More)
BACKGROUND Despite national ambitions to eliminate syphilis, occasional outbreaks continue to occur in many areas of the United States. GOAL The goal of the study was to describe and evaluate the public health interventions in response to an outbreak of syphilis in Los Angeles County among men who have sex with men. STUDY DESIGN Reported cases of(More)
PURPOSE The current analyses compared receipt of reproductive health care, contraceptive use, and screening for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among adolescents who are sexually experienced, with or without access to a school clinic. METHODS A total of 12 urban California high schools, selected from areas with high teen pregnancy and STD rates, half(More)