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BACKGROUND Cardiac memory (CM) refers to T-wave changes induced by ventricular pacing or arrhythmia that accumulate in magnitude and duration with repeated episodes of abnormal activation. We report herein the kinetics of long-term CM and its association with the ventricular action potential. METHODS AND RESULTS Dogs were paced from the ventricles at(More)
BACKGROUND In depolarized myocardial infarct epicardial border zones, the cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A) is largely inactivated, contributing to low action potential upstroke velocity (V(max)), slow conduction, and reentry. We hypothesized that a fast inward current such as the skeletal muscle sodium channel (SkM1) operating more effectively at depolarized(More)
OBJECTIVE Our goal was to study rate adaptation of atrial action potentials in non-steady and steady states to further our understanding of mechanisms determining inducibility and stability of atrial fibrillation. METHODS We used standard microelectrode techniques to examine the characteristics of steady-state action potentials paced at regular cycle(More)
BACKGROUND Ca2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) may play an important role in triggering and/or maintaining atrial arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation (AF). Protein kinase A (PKA) hyperphosphorylation of the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) resulting in dissociation of the channel-stabilizing subunit calstabin2 (FK506-binding protein or(More)
We tested the ability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to deliver a biological pacemaker to the heart. hMSCs transfected with a cardiac pacemaker gene, mHCN2, by electroporation expressed high levels of Cs+-sensitive current (31.1+/-3.8 pA/pF at -150 mV) activating in the diastolic potential range with reversal potential of -37.5+/-1.0 mV, confirming(More)
BACKGROUND Recent clinical and experimental data suggest that testosterone may protect males against the deleterious effects of repolarization-prolonging drugs. This study tests the hypothesis that 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) protects normal females against drug-induced excessive prolongation of repolarization. METHODS AND RESULTS We used(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiac memory refers to an altered T-wave morphology induced by ventricular pacing or arrhythmias that persist for variable intervals after resumption of sinus rhythm. METHODS AND RESULTS We induced long-term cardiac memory (LTM) in conscious dogs by pacing the ventricles at 120 bpm for 3 weeks. ECGs were recorded daily for 1 hour, during(More)
Cardiac memory (CM) has short- (STCM) and long-term (LTCM) components modulated by calcium and angiotensin II. LTCM is associated with reduced Ito and Kv4.3 mRNA levels. Because the cAMP response element binding protein, CREB, contributes to CNS memory transcription, we hypothesized that it might be a transcriptional factor in CM, influenced by calcium and(More)
OBJECTIVE Clinical and experimental studies suggest that immature hearts are as or more sensitive than adult hearts to adverse effects of I(Kr) blocking drugs. We hypothesized that age-dependent changes in I(Kr) and I(Ks) contribute to the different repolarization reserves and proarrhythmic effects of I(Kr) blockers in the young and adult heart. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Calcium-insensitive transient outward current (I(to)) is important to the development of cardiac memory (CM), which itself reflects the capacity of the heart to remodel electrophysiologically. We used cardiac pacing to test the hypothesis that CM evolution can be explained by developmental maturation of I(to). METHODS AND RESULTS Acutely(More)