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Elucidating the signalling mechanisms by which obesity leads to impaired insulin action is critical in the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of diabetes. Recently, mice deficient for S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1), an effector of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) that acts to integrate nutrient and insulin signals, were shown to be(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell specific mitogen that has been implicated in hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. We used the middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) in the rat to investigate VEGF mRNA and protein localization, and VEGFR-1 mRNA and VEGFR-2 mRNA expression in(More)
Ras is a universal eukaryotic intracellular protein integrating extracellular signals from multiple receptor types. To investigate its role in the adult central nervous system, constitutively activated V12-Ha-Ras was expressed selectively in neurons of transgenic mice via a synapsin promoter. Ras-transgene protein expression increased postnatally, reaching(More)
Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 expression are associated with advanced disease and poor patient prognosis in many tumor types (breast, lung, ovarian, prostate, glioma, gastric, and squamous carcinoma of head and neck). In addition, a constitutively active EGFR type III deletion mutant has been identified in non-small cell lung(More)
Focal brain ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. The volume of cerebral damage was determined 2 days later by MRI in vivo and in the same animals histologically. The edema volume as measured by MRI and the histologically determined infarction was highly correlated. As a consequence, the neuroprotective effect of the(More)
We studied the effects of rt-PA (recombinant tissue type-plasminogen activator) treatment on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after thromboembolic stroke in rat. New MRI methods of diffusion and perfusion imaging to observe the hemodynamic and biophysical effects of thrombolysis were combined with methods for assessment of BBB disturbances. In untreated(More)
In this study we evaluated the effect of the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist D-(E)-4-(3-phosphonoprop-2-enyl)piperazine-2-carboxylic acid (CGP 40116) on both early (2 days) and late (28 days) ischemic brain damage in a rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional histology.(More)
Nogo-A is a myelin-associated neurite outgrowth inhibitory protein limiting recovery and plasticity after central nervous system injury. In this study, a purified monoclonal anti-Nogo-A antibody (7B12) was evaluated in two rat stroke models with a time-to-treatment of 24 hours after injury. After photothrombotic cortical injury (PCI) and intraventricular(More)
Excitotoxic neurodegeneration in the rat striatum was induced by direct injection of quinolinic acid. The degree of damage was evaluated in vivo 1 day later by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 7 days later in the same animals by measuring the activities of the neuronal marker enzymes choline acetyltransferase and glutamic acid(More)
We investigated the temporal course of microglia activation in different brain regions after permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in mice and compared this microglia response with the appearance of apoptotic cells, Microglia activation and morphological changes of microglial cells were visualized using an immunohistochemical method with a(More)