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Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental autism spectrum disorder that affects girls due primarily to mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2). The majority of RTT patients carry missense and nonsense mutations leading to a hypomorphic MECP2, while null mutations leading to the complete absence of a functional protein are rare.(More)
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells may be of use in regenerative medicine. However, the low efficiency of reprogramming is a major impediment to the generation of patient-specific iPS cell lines. Here we report the first selection system for the isolation of human iPS cells. We developed the EOS (Early Transposon promoter and Oct-4 (Pou5f1) and Sox2(More)
BACKGROUND Rett Syndrome (RTT) is an Autism Spectrum Disorder and the leading cause of mental retardation in females. RTT is caused by mutations in the Methyl CpG-Binding Protein-2 (MECP2) gene and has no treatment. Our objective is to develop viral vectors for MECP2 gene transfer into Neural Stem Cells (NSC) and neurons suitable for gene therapy of Rett(More)
Retinoic acids (RA) are vitamin A derivatives essential for normal embryonic development and viability of vertebrates. The RA signal is mediated by two distinct classes of receptors, RA receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs). The RAR family is composed of three genes: RAR alpha, beta, and gamma. The expression of RAR beta gene is spatially and(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal genetic disease caused by mutations in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene, which regulates chloride and water transport across all epithelia and affects multiple organs, including the lungs. Here we report an in vitro directed differentiation protocol for generating functional CFTR-expressing(More)
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental autism spectrum disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Here, we describe the first characterization and neuronal differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from Mecp2-deficient mice. Fully reprogrammed wild-type (WT) and heterozygous female iPS cells(More)
MECP2 mutations cause the X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder Rett Syndrome (RTT) by consistently altering the protein encoded by the MECP2e1 alternative transcript. While mutations that simultaneously affect both MECP2e1 and MECP2e2 isoforms have been widely studied, the consequence of MECP2e1 deficiency on human neurons remains unknown. Here we report(More)
The Locus Control Region (LCR) requires intronic elements within beta-globin transgenes to direct high level expression at all ectopic integration sites. However, these essential intronic elements cannot be transmitted through retrovirus vectors and their deletion may compromise the therapeutic potential for gene therapy. Here, we systematically regenerate(More)
Retroviral vectors are silenced in embryonic stem (ES) cells by epigenetic mechanisms whose kinetics are poorly understood. We show here that a 3'D4Z4 insulator directs retroviral expression with persistent but variable expression for up to 5 months. Combining an internal 3'D4Z4 with HS4 insulators in the long terminal repeats (LTRs) shows that these(More)
Single cell imaging studies suggest that transcription is not continuous and occurs as discrete pulses of gene activity. To study mechanisms by which retroviral transgenes can transcribe to high levels, we used the MS2 system to visualize transcriptional dynamics of high expressing proviral integration sites in embryonic stem (ES) cells. We established two(More)
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