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The human neocortex has numerous specialized functional areas whose formation is poorly understood. Here, we describe a 15-base pair deletion mutation in a regulatory element of GPR56 that selectively disrupts human cortex surrounding the Sylvian fissure bilaterally including "Broca's area," the primary language area, by disrupting regional GPR56 expression(More)
Intellectual disability (ID) affects 1%-3% of the general population. We recently reported on a family with autosomal-recessive mental retardation with anterior maxillary protrusion and strabismus (MRAMS) syndrome. One of the reported patients with ID did not have dysmorphic features but did have temporal lobe epilepsy and psychosis. We report on the(More)
The human cerebral cortex depends for its normal development and size on a precisely controlled balance between self-renewal and differentiation of diverse neural progenitor cells. Specialized progenitors that are common in humans but virtually absent in rodents, called outer radial glia (ORG), have been suggested to be crucial to the evolutionary expansion(More)
Rotifers of Class Bdelloidea are remarkable in having evolved for millions of years, apparently without males and meiosis. In addition, they are unusually resistant to desiccation and ionizing radiation and are able to repair hundreds of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks per genome with little effect on viability or reproduction. Because specific(More)
Biological systems by default involve complex components with complex relationships. To decipher how biological systems work, we assume that one needs to integrate information over multiple levels of complexity. The songbird vocal communication system is ideal for such integration due to many years of ethological investigation and a discreet dedicated brain(More)
Variable requirements for actin during clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) may be related to regional or cellular differences in membrane tension. To compensate, local regulation of force generation may be needed to facilitate membrane curving and vesicle budding. Force generation is assumed to occur primarily through actin polymerization. Here we examine(More)
GmRAV-transgenic tobacco plants exhibited decreased gibberellins (GAs) biosynthesis related phenotypes, including dwarfism and repressed flowering time. The dwarf phenotype of GmRAV-overexpressing (ox) tobaccos was fully restored in stem and hypocotyl length of transgenic plants by the application of exogenous GA3. The epidermal cells in the stem internodes(More)
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