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We show that the HSV-1 structural protein VP22 has the remarkable property of intercellular transport, which is so efficient that following expression in a subpopulation the protein spreads to every cell in a monolayer, where it concentrates in the nucleus and binds chromatin. VP22 movement was observed both after delivery of DNA by transfection or(More)
Luman is a human basic leucine zipper transcription factor that, like the herpes simplex virus transcription factor VP16, requires the host cell factor, HCF, for activity. Although both HCF and Luman have been implicated in cell growth, their biological roles have not been clearly defined. Luman conforms to a type II membrane-associated glycoprotein with(More)
Regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of the transmembrane transcription factor ATF6 represents a key step in effecting adaptive response to the presence of unfolded or malfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Recent studies have highlighted new ATF6-related transmembrane transcription factors. It is likely that current models for ER stress(More)
The differentiation of stem cells into multi-lineages is essential to aid the development of tissue engineered materials that replicate the functionality of their tissue of origin. For this study, Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the formation of a bone-like apatite mineral during the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) towards an(More)
The mechanism by which herpes simplex virus (HSV) exits the nucleus remains a matter of controversy. The generally accepted route proposes that capsids exit via primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane and subsequent fusion of this primary particle with the outer nuclear membrane to gain capsid entry to the cytoplasm. However, recent observations(More)
CREB3 proteins comprise a set of ER-localized bZip transcription factors defined by the presence of a transmembrane domain. They are regulated by inter-compartmental transport, Golgi cleavage and nuclear transport where they promote appropriate transcriptional responses. Although CREB3 proteins play key roles in differentiation, inflammation and metabolism,(More)
Herpesviruses are DNA viruses harboring the capacity to establish lifelong latent-recurrent infections. There is limited knowledge about viruses targeting the innate DNA-sensing pathway, as well as how the innate system impacts on the latent reservoir of herpesvirus infections. In this article, we report that murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), in contrast(More)
CREB-H and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) are transmembrane transcription factors that, in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, traffic to the Golgi where they are cleaved by specific proteases, producing the N-terminal domains that effect appropriate transcriptional responses. We show that unlike in ATF6 whose lumenal tail binds BiP and(More)
CREB-H is an ATF6-related, transmembrane transcription factor that, in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated stress, is cleaved by Golgi proteases and transported to the nucleus to effect appropriate adaptive responses. We characterize the ER processing and turnover of CREB-H with results which have important implications for ER stress(More)
After cell entry, herpes simplex virus (HSV) particles are transported through the host cell cytoplasm to nuclear pores. Following replication, newly synthesized virus particles are transported back to the cell periphery via a complex pathway including a cytoplasmic phase involving some form of unenveloped particle. These various transport processes are(More)