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We show that the HSV-1 structural protein VP22 has the remarkable property of intercellular transport, which is so efficient that following expression in a subpopulation the protein spreads to every cell in a monolayer, where it concentrates in the nucleus and binds chromatin. VP22 movement was observed both after delivery of DNA by transfection or(More)
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS The purpose of this study was to describe the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies among interstitial cystitis (IC) patients, patients' perception of CAM therapies' effectiveness, and the association of time since diagnosis with perceived effectiveness of these therapies. METHODS In April 2009, the(More)
CREB3 proteins comprise a set of ER-localized bZip transcription factors defined by the presence of a transmembrane domain. They are regulated by inter-compartmental transport, Golgi cleavage and nuclear transport where they promote appropriate transcriptional responses. Although CREB3 proteins play key roles in differentiation, inflammation and metabolism,(More)
Herpesviruses are DNA viruses harboring the capacity to establish lifelong latent-recurrent infections. There is limited knowledge about viruses targeting the innate DNA-sensing pathway, as well as how the innate system impacts on the latent reservoir of herpesvirus infections. In this article, we report that murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68), in contrast(More)
VP16 is an essential structural protein of herpes simplex virus. It plays important roles in immediate-early transcriptional regulation, in the modulation of the activities of other viral components, and in the pathway of assembly and egress of infectious virions. To gain further insight into the compartmentalization of this multifunctional protein we(More)
Luman is a human basic leucine zipper transcription factor that, like the herpes simplex virus transcription factor VP16, requires the host cell factor, HCF, for activity. Although both HCF and Luman have been implicated in cell growth, their biological roles have not been clearly defined. Luman conforms to a type II membrane-associated glycoprotein with(More)
Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of the factors SREBP and ATF6 represents a central control mechanism in sterol homeostasis and stress response within the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we compare localization of ATF6-related bZip factors CREB4, CREB-H, Luman, and OASIS. These factors contain the defining features of a bZip domain, a predicted(More)
Regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) of the transmembrane transcription factor ATF6 represents a key step in effecting adaptive response to the presence of unfolded or malfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Recent studies have highlighted new ATF6-related transmembrane transcription factors. It is likely that current models for ER stress(More)
To investigate potential interplay between the SUMO1 (small ubiquitin-related modifier-1) and ubiquitin pathways of post-translational protein modification, we examined aspects of their localization and conjugation status during proteasome inhibition. Our results indicate that these pathways converge upon the discrete sub-nuclear domains known as PML(More)
The aim of this study is to assess in vitro cytotoxic effects of titania nanostructures and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by exposing A549 lung epithelial cell line to these materials. Titania nanotubes (TiNTs) were grown by hydrothermal treatment of TiO(2) nanoparticles, followed by annealing them at 400°C. The titania nanostructures obtained on annealing(More)