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Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) have recently shown impressive performance on a broad range of classification problems. Their generative properties allow better understanding of the performance, and provide a simpler solution for sensor fusion tasks. However, because of their inherent need for feedback and parallel update of large numbers of units, DBNs are(More)
We introduce an algorithm to do backpropagation on a spiking network. Our network is "spiking" in the sense that our neurons accumulate their activation into a potential over time, and only send out a signal (a " spike ") when this potential crosses a threshold and the neuron is reset. Neurons only update their states when receiving signals from other(More)
The following experiments evaluated the effects of warm- or cold-water swim stress on tail-flick latencies (TFL) in mice. To first determine the appropriate control group, the TFL's of dry-vs-dunked mice were compared. Dry mice had significantly shorter TFL's than dunked mice, implying that the dampness of the mouse's tail contributed to the increase in the(More)
Although fields such as e-commerce, information systems, and computer-mediated communication (CMC) acknowledge the importance of validity, validating research tools or measures in these domains seems the exception rather than the rule. This article extends the concept of validation to one of an emerging genre of web-based tools that provide new measures,(More)
Putative risk factors (DNA damage) and risk modifying factors (DNA repair and cell proliferation) were examined in an experimental mouse model in which treatment with dimethylhydrazine (6.8 mg/kg DMH i.p. once weekly) for up to 20 weeks induces colon tumours in a site specific manner with 0, 43 and 87% of animals having proximal, mid and distal colon(More)
Research shows that use of rating scales with precisely defined scale points improves interrater agreement. Instead of words, scale points may be defined by products for which ratings have been established by consensual agreement. These products serve as standards for raters. In two studies, raters assessed student products using conventional rating scales(More)