Peter Nigel Black

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CONTEXT Age, gender, height, ethnicity, and smoking are important determinants of lung function but do not explain all of the variation between individuals. Low concentrations of vitamin D have been associated with a number of diseases, including osteoporosis, hypertension, and type I diabetes. It is possible that serum concentrations of vitamin D might(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common comorbid disease in lung cancer, estimated to affect 40-70% of lung cancer patients, depending on diagnostic criteria. As smoking exposure is found in 85-90% of those diagnosed with either COPD or lung cancer, coexisting disease could merely reflect a shared smoking exposure. Potential confounding by(More)
Recently, several large genome-wide association studies have identified a putative "lung cancer" locus in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes (nAChR) on 15q25. However, these findings may be confounded by the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is also strongly associated with smoking exposure and lung cancer. This(More)
BACKGROUND The role of probiotics in prevention of allergic disease is still not clearly established, although early reports suggested Lactobacillus GG halved the risk of eczema at 2 years. OBJECTIVE To determine whether probiotic supplementation in early life could prevent development of eczema and atopy at 2 years. METHODS Double-blind, randomized(More)
The last two decades have seen an increase in the prevalence of asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis in developed countries. This increase has been paralleled by a fall in the consumption of saturated fat and an increase in the amount of polyunsaturated fat in the diet. This is due to a reduction in the consumption of animal fat and an increase in the use(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly the consequence of chronic smoking exposure, but its development may be influenced by genetic variants that affect lung remodelling, inflammation, and defence from oxidant stress. A study was undertaken to determine whether genetic variants within genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is increasing in Western societies. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that this is due to reduced exposure to environmental allergens and infections during early life. OBJECTIVES To examine factors associated with a diagnosis of AD at 3.5 years of age, especially those factors implicated by the hygiene(More)
BACKGROUND Only a few long term smokers develop symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and this may be due, at least in part, to genetic susceptibility to the disease. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) has a number of actions that make it a candidate for a role in the pathogenesis of COPD. We have investigated a single(More)
Small airways are the major site of airflow obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This is attributed to loss of elastin in alveoli and fibrosis in small airways. In the present study, it was hypothesised that changes to elastic fibres in alveoli might be paralleled by a similar reduction in elastic fibres in small airways. Tissue(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiological and family studies suggest that lung cancer results from the combined effects of age, smoking and genetic factors. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is also an independent risk factor for lung cancer and coexists in 40-60% of lung cancer cases. METHODS In a two-stage case-control association study, genetic markers(More)