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Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) are regulated by diverse stresses with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) component. Here, we report the rapid and transient activation of MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 upon oxygen deprivation as well as reoxygenation in seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. MPK activation peaked within 2 h of oxygen deprivation and again at a(More)
In the present study, functional development of mouse fetal through neonatal to adult thymocytes was analyzed by limiting dilution assay (LDA) in terms of allo-reactivity and self-reactivity. Self-reactive PTL-p were always much less than those of allo-reactive PTL-p at all ages examined in this study. These results imply that thymocyte proliferation is not(More)
Purpose Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive skin cancer with strong evidence for viral carcinogenesis. The association of MCC with the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) may explain the explicit immunogenicity of MCC. Indeed, MCPyV-encoded proteins are likely targets for cytotoxic immune responses to MCC as they are both foreign to the host and(More)
Adhesion to adsorbed pellicles and interspecies co-adhesion to form plaque biofilms involve selective interactions of bacterial adhesins with specific receptors. Our laboratory has devised in vitro assays for co-adhesion between Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis or Porphyromonas gingivalis on saliva-coated mineral and hexadecane droplet(More)
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