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Overexpression of erbB2 in breast tumors is associated with poor prognosis and is a target of receptor-oriented cancer therapy. Trastuzumab (Herceptin), a monoclonal antibody against a membrane-proximal epitope in the extracellular region of erbB2, shows a therapeutic effect against a fraction of erbB2-amplified breast tumors. Unfortunately, resistance to(More)
Trastuzumab is a recombinant antibody drug that is widely used for the treatment of breast cancer. Despite encouraging clinical results, some cancers are primarily resistant to trastuzumab, and a majority of those initially responding become resistant during prolonged treatment. The mechanisms of trastuzumab resistance have not been fully understood. We(More)
Prophylactic use of cabergoline has been associated with a decrease in the severity of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). A prospective randomized study was designed to evaluate the potential of cabergoline to decrease the incidence of OHSS in high-risk patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment; 166 patients with oestradiol(More)
During autophagy, phagophores capture portions of cytoplasm and form double-membrane autophagosomes to deliver cargo for lysosomal degradation. How autophagosomes gain competence to fuse with late endosomes and lysosomes is not known. In this paper, we show that Syntaxin17 is recruited to the outer membrane of autophagosomes to mediate fusion through its(More)
Levels of the selective autophagy substrate p62 have been established in recent years as a specific readout for basal autophagic activity. Here we compared different experimental approaches for using this assay in Drosophila larvae. Similar to the more commonly used western blots, quantifying p62 dots in immunostained fat body cells of L3 stage larvae(More)
The erbB/HER family of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) mediate cellular responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and related ligands. We have imaged the early stages of RTK-dependent signaling in living cells using: (i) stable expression of erbB1/2/3 fused with visible fluorescent proteins (VFPs), (ii) fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) bearing(More)
Fertilization rates increased continuously with the time elapsed after administration of hCG, reaching a peak of 84% when intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed >41 hours after hCG administration. However, the highest implantation rate, 24%, was achieved when ICSI was performed 37-41 hours after hCG administration.
Homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) is a tethering complex required for trafficking to the vacuole/lysosome in yeast. Specific interaction of HOPS with certain SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor) proteins ensures the fusion of appropriate vesicles. HOPS function is less well characterized in metazoans. We show that all six HOPS(More)
The interaction of the cell surface proteins plays a key role in the process of transmembrane signaling. Receptor clustering and changes in their conformation are often essential factors in the final outcome of ligand receptor interactions. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is an excellent tool for determining distance relationships and(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the arrangement of chromosomes within pronuclei-stage mouse zygotes. DESIGN In vitro study. SETTING Academic medical center. PATIENT(S) None. INTERVENTION(S) None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) Location of major alpha-satellite DNA, centromeres, and telomeres, and relative location of chromosomes. RESULT(S) Chromosomes(More)