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Life-history theory proposes that costs must be associated with reproduction. Many direct costs are incurred during breeding. There is also evidence for indirect costs, incurred after breeding, which decrease survival and future reproductive success. One possible indirect cost identified in birds is that breeding activity in some way compromises plumage(More)
As field determinations take much effort, it would be useful to be able to predict easily the coefficients describing the functional response of free-living predators, the function relating food intake rate to the abundance of food organisms in the environment. As a means easily to parameterise an individual-based model of shorebird Charadriiformes(More)
Lead concentrations were determined in the organs of a shorebird, the dunlin, in its main invertebrate prey, and in sediments collected from five sites in the Bristol Channel. The highest sediment concentrations were found in the Taff Estuary (97 microg g(-1) dry mass). The highest concentrations in invertebrates were found in the upper Severn Estuary (45(More)
In behavior-based individual-based models (IBMs), demographic functions are emergent properties of the model and are not built into the model structure itself, as is the case with the more widely used demography-based IBMs. Our behavior-based IBM represents the physiology and behavioral decision making of individual animals and, from that, predicts how many(More)
Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest(More)
Demands on land use in heavily populated landscapes create mosaic structures where semi-natural habitat patches are generally small and dominated by edges. Small patches are also more exposed and thus more vulnerable to adverse weather and potential effects of climate change. These conditions may be less problematic for generalist species than for(More)
The increase in size of human populations in urban and agricultural areas has resulted in considerable habitat conversion globally. Such anthropogenic areas have specific environmental characteristics, which influence the physiology, life history, and population dynamics of plants and animals. For example, the date of bud burst is advanced in urban compared(More)
Cadmium levels were determined in sediments, sediment-dwelling invertebrates and in one of their predators, the dunlin, at five sites in the Bristol Channel. The highest sediment cadmium levels were found in the Taff Estuary and at Avonmouth. The highest invertebrate levels were found at Avonmouth and Swansea. In dunlins, the highest cadmium levels were(More)
Large-scale climate processes influence many aspects of ecology including breeding phenology, reproductive success and survival across a wide range of taxa. Some effects are direct, for example, in temperate-zone birds, ambient temperature is an important cue enabling breeding effort to coincide with maximum food availability, and earlier breeding in(More)
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