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FK506 (tacrolimus) is a secondary metabolite with a potent immunosuppressive activity, currently registered for use as immunosuppressant after organ transplantation. FK506 and FK520 are biogenetically related natural products that are synthesized by combined polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase systems. The entire gene cluster for(More)
FK506, a widely used immunosuppressant, is produced by industrial fermentation processes using various Streptomyces species. Independently of the strain, structurally related compound FK520 is co-produced, resulting in complex and costly isolation procedures. In this paper, we report a chemobiosynthetic approach for exclusive biosynthesis of FK506. This(More)
In prokaryotes, only a few examples of differential gene expression in cell populations have been described. Colicin production in natural populations of Escherichia coli, while providing a competitive advantage in the natural habitat, also leads to lysis of the toxin-producing cell. Colicin K synthesis has been found to be induced due to an increase in(More)
FK506 (Tacrolimus) is an important immunosuppressant, produced by industrial biosynthetic processes using various Streptomyces species. Considering the complex structure of FK506, it is reasonable to expect complex regulatory networks controlling its biosynthesis. Regulatory elements, present in gene clusters can have a profound influence on the final yield(More)
Phenotypic diversity provides populations of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms with the flexibility required to adapt to and/or survive environmental perturbations. Consequently, there is much interest in unraveling the molecular mechanisms of heterogeneity. A classical example of heterogeneity in Escherichia coli is the subset (3%) of the population(More)
Colicin K exhibited pronounced inhibitory activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains. Low prevalence of colicin K production and a relatively high prevalence of ColE1-like plasmids were determined among 215 UPEC strains from Slovenia. Sequencing of the colicin K-encoding pColK-K235 revealed a mosaic structure and the presence of the(More)
© 2010 ETRI Journal, Volume 32, Number 1, February 2010 Oscillation-based testing of analog-to-digital converters represents a viable option for low-cost built-in self-testing in mixed-signal design. While numerous papers have addressed implementation issues, little attention has been paid to the measurement accuracy. In this letter, we highlight an(More)
Employing DERA (2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase), we developed the first whole-cell biotransformation process for production of chiral lactol intermediates useful for synthesis of optically pure super-statins such as rosuvastatin and pitavastatin. Herein, we report the development of a fed-batch, high-density fermentation with Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)(More)
We have recently reported the development of an efficient, whole-cell process for chemoenzymatic production of key chiral intermediates in statin synthesis by employing high-density Escherichia coli culture with the overexpressed deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase (DERA). The optically pure, 6-substituted cyclic hemiacetals can be used for the synthesis of(More)
In this paper we present a program tool that was developed for the simulation of temperatures inside the cooling appliance. The simulator is used to check the performance of the appliance at different settings of control parameters. These simulations replace the part of the measurements, which are time consuming due to the slow thermal processes, but are(More)