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Rhizobia reside as symbiosomes in the infected cells of legume nodules to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The symbiotic relation is strictly controlled, lasts for some time, but eventually leads to nodule senescence. We present a comprehensive transcriptomics study to understand the onset of nodule senescence in the legume Medicago truncatula. Distinct(More)
Symbiosis between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria leads to the formation of root nodules where bacteria in the infected plant cells are converted into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. Nodules with a persistent meristem are indeterminate, whereas nodules without meristem are determinate. The symbiotic plant cells in both nodule types are polyploid because of(More)
BACKGROUND The CDC20 and Cdh1/CCS52 proteins are substrate determinants and activators of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ubiquitin ligase and as such they control the mitotic cell cycle by targeting the degradation of various cell cycle regulators. In yeasts and animals the main CDC20 function is the destruction of securin and mitotic(More)
Sinorhizobium meliloti differentiates into persisting, nitrogen-fixing bacteroids within root nodules of the legume Medicago truncatula. Nodule-specific cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (NCR AMPs) and the bacterial BacA protein are essential for bacteroid development. However, the bacterial factors central to the NCR AMP response and the in planta role(More)
Transcriptome analysis of Medicago truncatula nodules has led to the discovery of a gene family named NCR (nodule-specific cysteine rich) with more than 300 members. The encoded polypeptides were short (60-90 amino acids), carried a conserved signal peptide, and, except for a conserved cysteine motif, displayed otherwise extensive sequence divergence.(More)
Deciphering the mechanisms leading to symbiotic nitrogen-fixing root nodule organogenesis in legumes resulted in the identification of numerous nodule-specific genes and gene families. Among them, NCR and GRP genes encode short secreted peptides with potential antimicrobial activity. These genes appear to form large multigenic families in Medicago(More)
The legume plant Medicago truncatula establishes a symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti which takes place in root nodules. The formation of nodules employs a complex developmental program involving organogenesis, specific cellular differentiation of the host cells and the endosymbiotic bacteria, called bacteroids, as well as(More)
Legumes form root nodules to house nitrogen fixing bacteria of the rhizobium family. The rhizobia are located intracellularly in the symbiotic nodule cells. In the legume Medicago truncatula these cells produce high amounts of Nodule-specific Cysteine-Rich (NCR) peptides which induce differentiation of the rhizobia into enlarged, polyploid and(More)
We investigated the potential plant growth-promoting traits of 377 culturable endophytic bacteria, isolated from Vitis vinifera cv. Glera, as good biofertilizer candidates in vineyard management. Endophyte ability in promoting plant growth was assessed in vitro by testing ammonia production, phosphate solubilization, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and IAA-like(More)
The nolK gene of Azorhizobium caulinodans is essential for the incorporation of a fucosyl group in Nod factors. A NAD(P)-binding site is present in the NolK amino acid sequence and the gene is homologous to Escherichia coli genes, presumably involved in GDP-fucose synthesis. Protein extracts of A. caulinodans, overexpressing nolK, have an enzyme activity(More)