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Mammals detect temperature with specialized neurons in the peripheral nervous system. Four TRPV-class channels have been implicated in sensing heat, and one TRPM-class channel in sensing cold. The combined range of temperatures that activate these channels covers a majority of the relevant physiological spectrum sensed by most mammals, with a significant(More)
A distinct subset of sensory neurons are thought to directly sense changes in thermal energy through their termini in the skin. Very little is known about the molecules that mediate thermoreception by these neurons. Vanilloid Receptor 1 (VR1), a member of the TRP family of channels, is activated by noxious heat. Here we describe the cloning and(More)
Mechanical and thermal cues stimulate a specialized group of sensory neurons that terminate in the skin. Three members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of channels are expressed in subsets of these neurons and are activated at distinct physiological temperatures. Here, we describe the cloning and characterization of a novel thermosensitive(More)
Understanding how biodiversity affects functioning of ecosystems requires integrating diversity within trophic levels (horizontal diversity) and across trophic levels (vertical diversity, including food chain length and omnivory). We review theoretical and experimental progress toward this goal. Generally, experiments show that biomass and resource use(More)
Vanilloid receptor type 1 (VR1) (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed on sensory nerves that responds to noxious heat, protons, and chemical stimuli such as capsaicin. Herein, we have examined the activity of the VR1 antagonist capsazepine in models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the rat, mouse, and guinea pig. In naïve animals,(More)
The vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1 or TRPV1) ion channel is activated by noxious heat, low pH and by a variety of vanilloid-related compounds. The antagonist, capsazepine is more effective at inhibiting the human TRPV1 response to pH 5.5 than the rat TRPV1 response to this stimulus. Mutation of rat TRPV1 at three positions in the S3 to S4 region, to the(More)
Natural selection arising from resource competition and environmental heterogeneity can drive adaptive radiation. Ecological opportunity facilitates this process, resulting in rapid divergence of ecological traits in many celebrated radiations. In other cases, sexual selection is thought to fuel divergence in mating signals ahead of ecological divergence.(More)
—Ecological stoichiometry refers to the relative availability of elements in ecosystems as both an influence upon and result of ecological interactions. Nutrient ratios have long been analyzed in primary producers, but their application to animals is more recent. Here, we summarize the ecological stoichiometry framework and highlight three key contexts in(More)
Key Points: • Lake surface waters are warming rapidly but are spatially heterogeneous • Ice-covered lakes are typically warming at rates greater than air temperatures • Both geomorphic and climate factors influence lake warming rates Supporting Information: • Figures S1–S4 and Tables S1–S4 Citation: O'Reilly, C. M., et al. (2015), Rapid and highly variable(More)
We studied the effects of nutrient availability and grazers on periphyton in the littoral zone of Lake Tanganyika. Using a combination of dissolved nutrient ratios, nutrient diffusing substrates, and benthic productivity responses to nutrient supplementation, we evaluated whether nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) limited periphyton productivity near Kigoma,(More)